author={K. Nyberg and Charles N. Ciampaglio and Gregory A. Wray},
Abstract The evolutionary origin of the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) is unclear, with debate centering around two principal hypotheses. The first, based on similarity in tooth shape, claims that C. carcharias originated from a group of extinct mako sharks that includes Isurus hastalis. The second hypothesis, based mostly on cladistic evidence, claims that C. carcharias originated from the same lineage as the giant megatoothed sharks, sharing a close evolutionary ancestor with the… 

Exceptional Preservation of the White Shark Carcharodon (Lamniformes, Lamnidae) from the Early Pliocene of Peru

ABSTRACT An exceptionally well-preserved white shark fossil (Carcharodon sp.) is described here from the early Pliocene (ca. 4 Ma) Pisco Formation of southwestern Peru. This specimen preserves 222

Body length estimation of Neogene macrophagous lamniform sharks (Carcharodon and Otodus) derived from associated fossil dentitions

The megatooth shark, Otodus megalodon, is widely accepted as the largest macrophagous shark that ever lived; and yet, despite over a century of research, its size is still debated. The great white

Body dimensions of the extinct giant shark Otodus megalodon: a 2D reconstruction

Body dimensions based on anatomical measurements of five ecologically and physiologically similar extant lamniforms suggest that the extinct giant shark †O.

The transition between Carcharocles chubutensis and Carcharocles megalodon (Otodontidae, Chondrichthyes): lateral cusplet loss through time

This study helps to elucidate the timing of lateral cusplet loss in Carcharocles locally, and the rationale for this prolonged evolutionary transition remains unclear.

A Partial Skeleton of a New Lamniform Mackerel Shark from the Miocene of Europe

A partial skeleton of an extinct lamniform shark consisting of 42 slightly disarticulated teeth, 49 vertebrae, and additional unidentifiable cranial and postcranial remains is described and a new genus, Carcharomodus, consequently is introduced.

A Morphometric Approach for Addressing Tooth-Based Species Delimitation in Fossil Mako Sharks, Isurus (Elasmobranchii: Lamniformes)

Geometric morphometric techniques can differentiate between the two extant species as well as the two extinct species, supporting I. xiphodon as a valid taxon and suggesting that this type of analysis is applicable for examining tooth-based species delimitations of sharks with both extant and extinct members.

Biomechanical insights into the dentition of megatooth sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae)

It is proposed that the evolution of gigantism in extinct otodontid sharks was paralleled by a series of drastic modifications in their dentition, and that this pattern most likely emerged as a non-functional by-product of heterochronic processes driven by selection towards larger body sizes.

New fossil teeth of the White Shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) from the Early Pliocene of Spain. Implication for its paleoecology in the Mediterranean

We report here supplementary fossil evidence from Guardamar del Segura (south-eastern Spain) that the White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias inhabits the Mediterranean since the Early Pliocene.

Landmark Analysis of Musteloid Carnassials Applied to Taxonomic Identification and Examination of Sexual Dimorphism and Regional Morphotypes

Guy Wilson Cave (GWC) in Sullivan County, Tennessee holds many late Pleistocene mammal fossils. Based on visual morphology, several partial mandibles with lower carnassial from GWC appeared to be



Great white sharks : the biology of Carcharodon carcharias

The Behavior of White Sharks and Their Pinniped Prey during Predatory Attacks, and the Implications for Predator Avoidance, is published.

Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes

This work is one of the most comprehensive modern anatomical and phylogenetic studies on cartilaginous fishes available and will become an essential reference not only for researchers on carcharhinoids but also for those who study other families of sharks and for paleontologists interested in this ancient group of fishes.

Dental homologies in lamniform sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii)

  • K. Shimada
  • Geography, Medicine
    Journal of morphology
  • 2002
This study constitutes the first demonstration of supraspecific tooth‐to‐tooth dental homologies in nonmammalian vertebrates.

The mechanics of cutting and the form of shark teeth (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii)

The mechanical implications of different tooth designs are scanned, hypotheses that relate to primary considerations of the physics of cutting compliant substrates are posed, and a preliminary approach is offered that is intended as a useful guide to further studies on sharks and on other vertebrate groups.

Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru)

ZusammenfassungPaläontologische, stratigraphische und geochronologische (K-Ar) Daten belegen ein obermiozänes und pliozänes Alter der Pisco-Formation. Die Sequenz wird etwa 350 m mächtig und besteht

Extensions of the Procrustes Method for the Optimal Superimposition of Landmarks

Superimposition methods for comparing configurations of landmarks in two or more specimens are reviewed. These methods show differences in shape among specimens as residuals after rotation,

Systematics and the Fossil Record: Documenting Evolutionary Patterns

  • A. Smith
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1994
This paper presents a meta-anatomical reconstruction of the distribution of phylogenetic trees in the fossil record from Carboniferous strata using a probabilistic approach and shows clear trends in tree-building and phylogenetic analysis.

Heterochrony: The Evolution of Ontogeny

The authors outline evolutionary thought from pre-Darwinian biology to current research on the subject. They broadly label the factors of evolution as intrinsic and extrinsic, with Darwin favoring

The Neogene sharks , rays , and bony fishes from Lee Creek Mine , Aurora , North Carolina

  • Smith - sonian Contributions to Paleobiology
  • 2001