author={Christy Halbert},
  journal={Journal of Sport \& Social Issues},
  pages={36 - 7}
  • C. Halbert
  • Published 1 February 1997
  • Education
  • Journal of Sport & Social Issues
Women have traditionally been credited only with marginal roles in the sport of boxing, even though they have competed as pugilists since the late 1880s. The author interviewed 12 women professional boxers in the United States in an effort to understand their position as athletes who compete in a sport considered deviant for women. This revealed that women pugilists face discrimination at gyms and in competitions, are aware of numerous stereotypes as a result of their participation in a deviant… 

Female Athletes: Being both Athletic and Feminine

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This article investigates national similarities and differences with respect to how women enter the world of football and whether gender relations continue to impact on both their access to and

“Suffragettes in Satin Shorts”? Gender and Competitive Boxing

This study is an empirical and theoretical contribution to the burgeoning literature on gender and competitive boxing. By using Connell's concepts of labor, power, cathexis, and representation and a

Gender, Media, and Mixed Martial Arts in Poland

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We Can Be Athletic and Feminine, But Do We Want To? Challenging Hegemonic Femininity in Women's Sport

More women than ever before are panicipating in a diverse array of sports. However, at the same time, this popularity accentuates the femininity of these sportswomen, protecting the “image” of

Gender and Sport

Sport is a useful arena in which to study gender and society. Since ancient times, men have used sport to separate themselves from women by restricting women from participating in games and contests

Living the Paradox: Female Athletes Negotiate Femininity and Muscularity

Sportswomen live in 2 cultures: the sport culture that is inherently masculine and the larger social culture where femininity is celebrated for women. In this investigation, which was grounded in

Trampled Autonomy: Women, Athleticism, and Health

Abstract:Philosophical analysis has paid scant attention to the gender inequalities women athletes face compared to the myriad ways in which social science shows that athleticism values masculinity

Out of Bounds: Cultural Barriers to Female Sports Participation in Qatar

For the past 20 years, female athletic participation in the Middle East has been increasing. In the conservative Gulf region, female athleticism has been met with a degree of ambivalence, as

The Image Problem in Women’s Football

The following article offers an insight into the experiences of female football players at a college of higher education in the south of England. Its principal focus is the image of the game and, in



Homophobia and Women's Sport: The Disempowerment of Athletes

Abstract One means to discredit women who engage in nontraditional gender role behavior, and thus challenge the prevailing patriarchal and heterosexist normative system, is to label them lesbian.

The Exploitation of Disadvantage: The Occupational Sub-Culture of the Boxer

While there are more objective and accurate research techniques which can be employed to discover who lives in the poverty trap, there is little doubt that a survey of amateur and professional boxing

WINNING ARTICLE 1986 ALPHA KAPPA DELTA UNDERGRADUATE PAPER COMPETITION.: Women Atheletes and Athletic Women: The Dilemmas and Contradictions of Managing Incongruent Identities

Using the example of “woman athletes,” or more specifically, women basketball players, this is a case study in the management of contradictory essential and relational identities. Two types of data


Recently, feminist work on sport and gender has begun to understand male tolerance of physical risk and injury as a constituting process that may enhance a particular brand of masculinization. For

The De-Athleticization of Women: The Naming and Gender Marking of Collegiate Sport Teams

American colleges and universities use nicknames, colors, logos, and mascots as identifying and unifying symbols, especially concerning their athletic teams. This paper examines the dark side of

Self-Images of Women Bodybuilders

In analyzing the data from a questionnaire survey of 205 competitive women bodybuilders conducted by the International Federation of Body-Builders, the authors attempt to find out how these women

Sport Stereotypes and Gender

Two samples were used to assess the sex linkage of a wide range of sports. One sample rated each of 68 sports (Matteo, 1984) on perceived acceptability and likelihood of participation for both

The Construction of Gender in Sport: Women, Coaching, and the Naturalization of Difference

Analyses of the significance of sport to the construction of gender have for the most part concentrated on the practice or performance of sport. This article examines the construction of gender in

Being female and athletic: A cause for conflict?

This study examined the interrelationships among role conflict, gender role orientation, and female sport participation. One hundred six female high school athletes and nonathletes were administered

The Occupational Culture of the Boxer

Professional boxers are recruited from among the youth of the lower socioeconomic levels. Their changing ethnic composition reflects the ethnic shifts in the urban lower socioeconomic levels.