TNFalpha cooperates with the protein kinase A pathway to synergistically increase HIV-1 LTR transcription via downstream TRE-like cAMP response elements.

Activating protein-1 (AP-1) binding TPA responsive elements (TRE) are located downstream of the transcription initiation site in the U5 region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). These downstream sequence elements, termed DSE, can bind both AP-1 and CREB/ATF transcription factors. Recently, we demonstrated that the DSE are also cAMP-responsive elements… (More)