Comparison of innate immune agonists for induction of tracheal antimicrobial peptide gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells of cattle
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins that recognize conserved microbial molecules. Engagement of TLRs activates innate and adaptive immunity. TLR-mediated activation of immune cells results in upregulation of cytokines, chemokines and costimulatory molecules. These early innate responses control pathogen spread and initiates adaptive immune responses. Synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), agonists for TLR9, had shown great promise as immunotherapeutic agents and vaccine adjuvants in laboratory animal models of infectious disease, allergy and cancer. However, it has become apparent that CpG ODN are less potent immune activators in domestic animals and humans. The disparity in immune responses between rodents and mammals has been mainly attributed to differences in cellular expression of TLR9 in the various species. In this article, our current understanding of the immune mechanisms, as well as the potential applications of CpG ODN will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on domestic animals.