TIGRINA d, required for regulating the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles in barley, is an ortholog of the FLU gene of Arabidopsis thaliana 1

@article{Lee2003TIGRINADR,
  title={TIGRINA d, required for regulating the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles in barley, is an ortholog of the FLU gene of Arabidopsis thaliana
 
1},
  author={Keun Pyo Lee and Chanhong Kim and Dae Won Lee and Klaus Apel},
  journal={FEBS Letters},
  year={2003},
  volume={553}
}

The molecular cloning and clarification of a photorespiratory mutant, oscdm1, using enhancer trapping

Interestingly, OsSHMT1-overexpressing plants exhibited increased photosynthetic efficiency and improved plant productivity, which suggests that the thylakoid membrane damage observed in the oscdm1 plants was caused by excessive H2O2.

Suppression of the Barley uroporphyrinogen III synthase Gene by a Ds Activation Tagging Element Generates Developmental Photosensitivity[W]

A novel, activation-tagged barley mutant is described that results from antisense suppression of a uroporphyrinogen III synthase (Uros) gene, the product of which catalyzes the sixth step in the synthesis of chlorophyll and heme.

Barley’s Second Spring as a Model Organism for Chloroplast Research

An update on the genomics tools now available for barley is provided, and the biotechnological strategies reported to increase photosynthesis efficiency in model species, which deserve to be validated in barley are reviewed.

Overexpression of HEMA1 encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase.

The FLP proteins act as regulators of chlorophyll synthesis in response to light and plastid signals in Chlamydomonas.

The function of a Flu-like gene from Chlamydomonas that gives rise to two FLP transcripts that differ by only 12 amino acids but that interact differently with glutamyl-tRNA reductase, an enzyme involved in an early step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway are examined.

Concurrent interactions of heme and FLU with Glu tRNA reductase (HEMA1), the target of metabolic feedback inhibition of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, in dark- and light-grown Arabidopsis plants.

During an extensive second site screen of mutagenized flu seedlings a suppressor of flu, ulf3, was identified that is allelic to hy1 and encodes a heme oxygenase, supporting the notion that heme antagonizes the effect of the flu mutation by inhibiting Glu tRNA reductase independently of FLU.

Rapid dark repression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis in green barley leaves.

It is demonstrated that dark repression of ALA formation relies rather on rapid post-translational regulation in response to accumulating Pchlide than on changes in nuclear gene expression, which avoids photo-oxidative damage.

Phosphorylation of GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 Alters Stimulation of Mg Chelatase Activity in Angiosperms1[OPEN]

It is shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GUN4 is phosphorylated at Ser 264 (S264), the penultimate amino acid residue at the C terminus, which minimizes the flow of intermediates into the Mg branch of the tetrapyrrole metabolic pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis.

Parallel pigment and transcriptomic analysis of four barley Albina and Xantha mutants reveals the complex network of the chloroplast-dependent metabolism

The results indicate that the down-regulation of Lhcb genes in alb-e16 cannot be mediated by the accumulation of Mg-protoporphyrin IX, and provide additional evidences on a chloroplast-dependent covariation of large sets of nuclear genes.

Leaf Variegation and Impaired Chloroplast Development Caused by a Truncated CCT Domain gene in albostrians Barley

The identification of the ALBOSTRIANS gene HvAST by positional cloning as well as its functional validation based on independently induced mutants by TILLING and RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease mediated gene editing are reported.
...

References

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In Arabidopsis thaliana, a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is found, FLU, which operates independently of heme and seems to selectively affect only the Mg2+ branch of Tetrapyr Role biosynthesis.

Analysis of RNA and enzymes of potential importance for regulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis in the protochlorophyllide accumulating barley mutant tigrina-d12

Dark-grown tigrina-d(12) mutants of barley accumulate abnormally high amounts of the chlorophyll intermediate protochlorophyllide, which is based on an increased formation of ALA, which must be sensed by one or several of the three ALA forming enzymes.

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Several tigrina mutants of barley, namely tig-b7, -b19, -f11, -m31, -n32, -33, and -o34 can accumulate chlorophyll(ide) a (abbr. Chl a) with an absorption maximum near 742 nm in addition to ChlA absorbing near 676 nm, which is dependent on the allele and the growth conditions.

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As the “pigment of life,” Chl plays a fundamental role in the energy absorption and transduction activities of all photosynthetic organisms and helps prevent photodynamic damage by large amounts of not immediately photoconvertible Pchlide.

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It is suggested that the coordination of expression and enzyme activities allows, in the light phase, an extensive flow of substrates into the chlorophyll-synthesizing branch of the metabolic pathway and, after the transition from light to dark, a channeling into the heme biosynthetic pathway.

Cellular responses to tetrapyrrole-induced oxidative stress in transgenic plants with reduced uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase or coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity

The data demonstrate the induction of the enzymatic detoxifying defense system in several compartments, suggesting a photosensitization of the entire cell.

Controls on chlorophyll synthesis in barley.

A model for control of chlorophyll synthesis is proposed, based on a light-induced activation at the translational level of the synthesis of proteins forming delta-aminolevulinic acid, as well as the short half-life of these proteins.