author={R. E. Johnson},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
Accurately determining the escape rate from a planet's atmosphere is critical for determining its evolution. A large amount of Cassini data is now available for Titan's upper atmosphere and a wealth of data is expected within the next decade on escape from Pluto, Mars, and extra-solar planets. Escape can be driven by upward thermal conduction of energy deposited well below the exobase, as well as by nonthermal processes produced by energy deposited in the exobase region. Recent applications of… Expand

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  • Robert E. Johnson
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2008
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