author={Paul Collins},
  journal={Source: Notes in the History of Art},
  pages={1 - 6}
  • Paul Collins
  • Published 1 April 2004
  • Art
  • Source: Notes in the History of Art
The symbolic use of a landscape and associ ated flora and fauna has a long history in art.1 Among the earliest and most celebrated European examples of symbolic landscapes are those in Netherlandish paintings. Ac cording to Panofsky, Netherlandish painters invested every detail of their works with symbolic meaning that the beholder had to decipher.2 Yet Panofsky's notion of "dis guised symbolism" poses problems, for, if an object or a detail was commonly known as a reference to something else… 
Trees and gender in Assyrian art 1
The question of identifying cultural symbolism of any period is tortuous without textual or verbal evidence. It is particularly difficult when dealing with an ancient society removed by thousands of
Corpses, Cannibals, and Commensality: A Literary and Artistic Shaming Convention in the Ancient Near East
In this contribution, I examine several ancient Near Eastern literary texts and artistic variations on the “banquet motif” in which one finds people dining while others die. I argue that these
Neighbors through Imperial Eyes: Depicting Babylonia in the Assyrian Campaign Reliefs
Abstract The Neo-Assyrian campaign reliefs are rich sources for understanding Assyrian ideas of empire, geography, and Assyria’s relationship to the wider world. They are also exceptions: the format
Phenomenology of Garden in Assyrian Documents and Reliefs; Concepts and Types
Problem: The Assyrian reliefs, especially the Neo-Assyrian, in addition to “historical narratives,” have a long tradition in “representing the natural environment.” On the other hand, Assyrian dipole
Dressing the Neo-Assyrian Queen in Identity and Ideology: Elements and Ensembles from the Royal Tombs at Nimrud
Through an analysis of the ninth- to eighth-century B.C.E. mortuary assemblages from the Queens' Tombs of Nimrud's Northwest Palace in Iraq, this article interprets dress elements and ensembles in


Landscape Bas-Reliefs in the Bīt-Ḫilāni of Ashurbanipal
  • Pauline Albenda
  • History
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 1976
The 7th-century B.C. wall relief depicting King Ashurbanipal and his queen Ashur-shurrat banqueting in an outdoor setting remains the earliest known example of the symposium motif, in which a male
Sacred Trees, Date Palms, and the Royal Persona of Ashurnasirpal II
  • B. Porter
  • Art
    Journal of Near Eastern Studies
  • 1993
THE tree scene shown in carvings from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 B.c.) at Nimrud (ancient Kalbu) has become one of the classic problems of Assyrian art
A Hymn to Inanna and Her Self-Praise
1998), II, pis
  • 249, 309. For representations of flora in Assyrian art, see E. Bleibtreu, Die Flora der neuassyrischen Reliefs: Eine Untersuchung zu den Orthostatenreliefs des 9.-7. Jahrhunderts v. Chr.
  • 1980
Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character, 2 vols
  • 1953
Cultivation of the Iraq (Cambridge: 1921-1923)
  • Plant Production and Pro tection Papers,
  • 1982
Grapevines in Ashurbanipal's
  • Gar den," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 1974
A Catalogue of the Nimrud Ivories: With Other Examples of Ancient Near East ern Ivories in the British Museum (London: 1957)
  • 1957
1976), pp
  • 19-20, 57-58, pi. LXIV. The relief is now part of the collection of the British Museum
Early Netherlandish Painting: Shifting Perspectives,
  • From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York:
  • 1998