author={Devin K. Binder and Karl Schaller and Hans Clusmann},
JOHANN-CHRISTIAN REIL (1759–1813) was a prominent German physician, anatomist, physiologist and a professor at the Universities of Halle and Berlin. Anatomic features named after him include the island of Reil (insula), Beau-Reil cross furrows, Reil's finger, the fillet of Reil, and Reil's triangle. In 1795, he founded the first German journal of physiology, Archiv für die Physiologie. Later, he would also be considered the founder of German psychiatry (the “German Pinel”) and coined the term… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Johann Christian Reil (1759–1813) who first described the insula

The German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist, and physiologist Johann Christian Reil (Fig. 1) was born on 20 February 1759 in Rhaude, Ostfriesland and died in his sister’s house in Halle in 1810.

Johann Christian Reil and the naming of our specialty

  • R. Kaplan
  • Psychology
    Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
  • 2012
Reil’s skills were held in high regard and many leading citizens sought him out to be their doctor. An indication of this comes from his treatment of his most famous patient, Johann Wolfgang von

Johann Cristian Reil on the 200th anniversary of the first description of the insula (1809)

The insula has been given many other names over the years since Reil first identified it, including “the central lobe”, ‘the fifth lobe of the brain’, “intersylvian convolutions” and “intralobular gyri”.


The Rhapsodieen by Johann Christian Reil (1759-1813), edited in 1803, gave a crucial boost to care and treatment reforms for the mentally ill in Prussia. Reil, professor at the University of Halle,

To the Delineation of the Notion of Self-Consciousness in Psychiatry: J.Ch. Reil’s Concept

The aim was to establish the rst authors of the notion and the conception of depersonalization in psychiatry, to analyze the criteria (signs) of normal and disordered consciousness in its “primary”

Insular Epilepsy: Clinical, Electrophysiological Features, and Surgical Treatment

The gross and functional anatomy of the insula, clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of insular epilepsy, and surgical evaluation and treatment approaches are described.

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Narcissism

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder that involves a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by exaggerated feelings of selfimportance, an excessive need for

Opinions of primary care physicians and psychiatrists on psychiatry and psychiatrists – a comparison

Almost all PCPs state that the primary form of treatment for psychiatric patients should be community care, and they do not see psychiatry as being so underfunded and stigmatized within the society as psychiatrists do.

The 100 Most Cited Papers Concerning the Insular Cortex of the Brain: A Bibliometric Analysis

The aim of the current study was to fill in the knowledge gap by determining which publications concerning the insula have been cited most often, who contributed to them, and what topics they were dealing with.



Metaphors of Mind and Society: The Origins of German Psychiatry in the Revolutionary Era

This essay first surveys the historiographical debates of recent years concerning society and the emergence of psychiatry, then examines the social-cultural context of the late Aufklarung in Prussia and sketches the intellectual background of the Rhapsodieen, which lies in the development of German physiology since the 1750s.

Rhapsodies on a Cat-Piano, or Johann Christian Reil and the Foundations of Romantic Psychiatry

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a book on the treatment of insanity appeared, the analyses and prescriptions of which would help establish psychiatry as a modern discipline in Germany.

From enlightenment to Naturphilosophie: Marcus Herz, Johann Christian Reil, and the problem of border crossings

  • L. Hansen
  • Philosophy
    Journal of the history of biology
  • 1993
This paper explores the conditions for change in Reil's early work and in the Berlin society in which he developed both his intellectual interests and his first significant social contacts.

Three hundred years of psychiatry 1535–1860

The result was not simply to provide materials for a history of psychiatry in Britain from 1535 to 1860, but a brilliant version of that history, and was so generously conceived and intelligently executed that it is simultaneously a book of readings and a genuine research tool.

Goethe almost died of urosepsis

The urological problems discussed in this article were left unmentioned because Goethe hinted about medical problems other than those reported herein, and literature that deals with Goethe's diseases is interesting.

Johann Christian Reil's training scheme for medical auxiliaries.

There is a growing interest in the extension of primary medical care by auxiliaries in countries where the problem seems to be more of maldistribution than of scarcity of medical personnel.

The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe

Uniting the personal and poetic aspects of philosophy and science in a way that the German Romantics themselves would have honored, 'The Romantic Conception of Life' questions how we look at

Arteries of the insula.

Complete comprehension of the intricate vascularization patterns associated with the insula, as well as proficiency in insular anatomy, are prerequisites to accomplishing appropriate surgical planning and, ultimately, to completing successful exploration and removal of pathological lesions in this region.

Topographic anatomy of the insular region.

The topographic anatomy of the insular region is described in this article, and a practical terminology for gyral and sulcal patterns of surgical significance is presented to help develop a more coherent surgical concept.

Clinical observation: Beau's lines on fingernails after deep saturation dives.

  • H. Schwartz
  • Biology
    Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
  • 2006
Transverse furrows, or Beau's lines, were noted in the fingernails of all 6 divers following a deep saturation dive to apressure equal to 1100 feet (335 meters) ofsea water (3,370 kPa), and in 2 of6