author={Robert M. Brucker and Seth R. Bordenstein},
The comparative structure of bacterial communities among closely related host species remains relatively unexplored. For instance, as speciation events progress from incipient to complete stages, does divergence in the composition of the species’ microbial communities parallel the divergence of host nuclear genes? To address this question, we used the recently diverged species of the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia to test whether the evolutionary relationships of their bacterial microbiotas… 

Phylosymbiosis: Relationships and Functional Effects of Microbial Communities across Host Evolutionary History

Findings indicate that the composition and functional effects of an animal's microbial community can be closely allied with host evolution, even across wide-ranging timescales and diverse animal systems reared under controlled conditions.

Adapting to novel environments together: evolutionary and ecological correlates of the bacterial microbiome of the world’s largest cavefish diversification

The largest diversification of cavefishes of the world, Sinocyclocheilus, not only shows that habitat, and phylogenetic clade is important in determining their gut microbiome, but also that they reach a common microbiome in captivity irrespective of their phylogenetic position, region of origin and habitat, indicating that they are adaptable in the context of microbe related changes in their environment.

Genomes of Gut Bacteria from Nasonia Wasps Shed Light on Phylosymbiosis and Microbe-Assisted Hybrid Breakdown

It is shown that bacterial genomes in Nasonia differ from other environments and harbor genes with unique functions that may regulate phylosymbiotic relationships, thus supporting a hologenomic tenet that the same members of the microbiome and the host genome impact phylosYmbiosis, hybrid breakdown, and speciation.

Divergence of Fecal Microbiota and Their Associations With Host Phylogeny in Cervinae

Correlation was observed between the fecal microbiota divergence and host phylogeny, but they were not congruent completely, which may shed new light on the coevolution of host species and their microbiota.

The Phylosymbiosis Pattern Between the Fig Wasps of the Same Genus and Their Associated Microbiota

The results suggest a significant positive correlation between host genetic characteristics and microbial diversity characteristics, indicating the phylosymbiosis signal between the phylogeny of insect hosts and the associated microbiota in the lower classification level within a genus.

Adapting to Novel Environments Together: Evolutionary and Ecological Correlates of the Bacterial Microbiome of the World’s Largest Cavefish Diversification (Cyprinidae, Sinocyclocheilus)

The results suggest that divergent natural environments giving rise to evolutionary novelties underlying host adaptations, also includes the microbiome of these fishes.

The Hologenomic Basis of Speciation: Gut Bacteria Cause Hybrid Lethality in the Genus Nasonia

It is concluded that in this animal complex, the gut microbiome and host genome represent a coadapted “hologenome” that breaks down during hybridization, promoting hybrid lethality and assisting speciation.

Disentangling a Holobiont – Recent Advances and Perspectives in Nasonia Wasps

This review presents the Nasonia species complex as a model system to experimentally investigate questions regarding the impact of different microbes, including heritable endosymbionts, on the extended phenotype of the holobiont and the establishment and regulation of a species-specific microbiota.

Ecology and Host Identity Outweigh Evolutionary History in Shaping the Bat Microbiome

It is concluded that the gut, oral, and skin microbiota of bats are shaped predominantly by ecological factors and do not exhibit the same degree of phylosymbiosis observed in other mammals.

Phylosymbiosis Impacts Adaptive Traits in Nasonia Wasps

Results reveal developmental and survival costs to Nasonia upon larval exposures to interspecific microbiota and provide evidence that selective pressures on phenotypes produced by host-microbiota interactions may underpin phylosymbiosis.



Functional and Evolutionary Insights from the Genomes of Three Parasitoid Nasonia Species

Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-specific genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution of genes involved in nuclear-mitochondrial interactions that are implicated in speciation.

Geographical Distribution and Diversity of Bacteria Associated with Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Overall, bacterial communities associated with adult D. melanogaster hosts are diverse and differ across host populations, and no relationship was observed between species richness and a variety of abiotic factors, such as temperature and latitude.

Phylogenetic diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in the termite Reticulitermes speratus

The 16S rDNA gene sequence data show that the majority of the intestinal microflora of R. speratus consists of new, uncultured species previously unknown to microbiologists.

Phylogeny of the Nasonia species complex (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) inferred from an internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and 28S rDNA sequences

Tree topology of the Nasonia complex was congruent with the phylogeny of a cluster of Wolbachia bacteria which infect these insects and was used to resolve the phylogenetic affiliation of an eulophid, Melittobia digitata, to the pteromalids.

Inter- and intraspecific comparison of the bacterial assemblages in the hindgut of humivorous scarab beetle larvae (Pachnoda spp.).

Terminal restriction length fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis revealed that in both species, the bacterial hindgut community differs strongly from that in the midgut, food soil, and fecal pellets.

Culture-Independent Characterization of the Microbiota of the Ant Lion Myrmeleon mobilis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

Results represent the first culture-independent analysis of the microbiota associated with a discontinuous insect gut and suggest that the ant lion microbial community is relatively simple, which may be a reflection of the diet and gut physiology of these insects.

Has the Microbiota Played a Critical Role in the Evolution of the Adaptive Immune System?

How specific aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced by intestinal commensal bacteria may redefine how the authors view the evolution of adaptive immunity and consequently how they approach the treatment of numerous immunologic disorders is explored.

Behavioral and genetic characteristics of a new species of Nasonia

An important characteristic of N. oneida is the strong mate discrimination shown by the females against all the other Nasonia species, and a genetic analysis of this phenotype by interspecies hybridization indicates that this strong discriminating phenotype is recessive.

The parasitoid wasp Nasonia: an emerging model system with haploid male genetics.

The Nasonia genome project provides a wealth of interspecies polymorphisms to facilitate positional cloning of genes involved in species differences in behavior, morphology, and development and opens a path for improvement of parasitoid insects as agents of pest control.