THE ROLE OF MALE FLOWERS IN ANDROMONOECIOUS SPECIES: ENERGETIC COSTS AND SIRING SUCCESS IN SOLANUM CAROLINENSE L

@inproceedings{VallejoMarn2007THERO,
  title={THE ROLE OF MALE FLOWERS IN ANDROMONOECIOUS SPECIES: ENERGETIC COSTS AND SIRING SUCCESS IN SOLANUM CAROLINENSE L},
  author={Mario Vallejo‐Mar{\'i}n and Mark D. Rausher},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
  year={2007}
}
Abstract Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses regarding the benefits of andromonoecy (producing perfect and female-sterile flowers on the same plant) are tested using Solanum carolinense. Results indicate that (1) staminate flowers are cheaper to produce than perfect flowers, even after correcting for their relative position in the inflorescence; (2) the resources saved by producing staminate flowers are not re-allocated to other fitness enhancing functions; and (3) the main morphological… 
Selection through Female Fitness Helps to Explain the Maintenance of Male Flowers
TLDR
It is concluded that this counterintuitive benefit of staminate flowers on female fitness highlights the importance of considering female components of fitness in the evolution of andromonoecy, a reproductive system usually interpreted as a “male” strategy.
An examination of the function of male flowers in an andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa.
TLDR
Results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors, suggesting female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen.
Flower morphology and pollinator dynamics in Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae): implications for the evolution of andromonoecy.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that different pollinators could select for different floral morphologies, and thus, the research suggests that pollinator-specific interactions with flower morphology play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of anrdromonoecy.
Intersexual flower differences in an andromonoecious species: small pollen-rich staminate flowers under resource limitation.
TLDR
This work compared six floral morphology traits, pollen production, pollinator visits and pollen removal from anthers between staminate and perfect flowers in several natural Commelina communis populations and suggested that the morphological changes in staminated flowers enhance pollination success, even with limited resources.
Sexual phenotype of Capparis herbacea (Capparaceae)
Floral morphology coupled with the morphometry of androecium revealed that Capparis herbacea Willd. has an andromonoecious sexual system, producing both male and perfect flowers on the same plant.
Why do stigmas move in a flexistylous plant?
TLDR
It is found that manipulated flowers sired a significantly smaller proportion of seeds, showing that stigma movement in unmanipulated plants increased male fitness.
Flower morphology, gender functionality, and pollinator dynamics in Solanum carolinense: implications for the evolution of andromonoecy
TLDR
The functional relationship between flower morphology and pollination dynamics in Solanum carolinense supports the female/male interference hypothesis and suggest that when plants are visited by species of species of Bombus, the differences in fitness could favor the evolution of andromonoecy.
When to be a male? Role of resource-limitation and pollinators in determining floral sex in an andromonoecious spiderwort
TLDR
It is concluded that environmentally driven resource constraints play a bigger role in driving floral sex expression in Murdannia over direct pollinator-driven constraints.
Male flowers are better fathers than hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata.
TLDR
The production of male morph flowers in P. incarnata appears to be a flexible adaptive mechanism to enhance male fitness, which might be especially beneficial when plants face temporary resource shortages for nurturing additional fruits.
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Selection through Female Fitness Helps to Explain the Maintenance of Male Flowers
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It is concluded that this counterintuitive benefit of staminate flowers on female fitness highlights the importance of considering female components of fitness in the evolution of andromonoecy, a reproductive system usually interpreted as a “male” strategy.
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