author={F{\'e}lix Forest and Mark W. Chase and Claes Persson and Peter R. Crane and Julie A. Hawkins},
  booktitle={Evolution; international journal of organic evolution},
Abstract A phylogenetic approach was taken to investigate the evolutionary history of seed appendages in the plant family Polygalaceae (Fabales) and determine which factors might be associated with evolution of elaiosomes through comparisons to abiotic (climate) and biotic (ant species number and abundance) timelines. Molecular datasets from three plastid regions representing 160 species were used to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the order Fabales, focusing on Polygalaceae. Bayesian dating… 

Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in Polygalaceae: The case of Epirixanthes.

The phylogenetic relationships of Epirixanthes are reconstructed and it is found that Epirxanthes is placed in tribe Polygaleae as sister to Salomonia, which suggests its evolution was influenced by the environmental dynamics in Southeast Asia during this time.

Combined phylogenetic analyses reveal interfamilial relationships and patterns of floral evolution in the eudicot order Fabales

The development of papilionate flowers, and the evolutionary context in which these phenotypes appeared in Leguminosae and Polygalaceae, shows that the morphologies are convergent rather than synapomorphic within Fabales.

Dispersal mechanisms of the narrow endemic Polygala vayredae: dispersal syndromes and spatio-temporal variations in ant dispersal assemblages

Dispersal mechanisms that enhance seed dispersal within the population and only occasionally lead to long-distance dispersal events, along with the rarity and patchiness of suitable habitats, may be the main factors explaining the actual density and narrow distribution of this species.

The relative importance of body size and paleoclimatic change as explanatory variables influencing lineage diversification rate: an evolutionary analysis of bullhead catfishes (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae).

The difficulties of detecting macroevolutionary patterns within a lineage history are discussed and the scrutiny of the terminal Eocene climatic event as a direct promoter of diversification is encouraged.

Using Comparative Biogeography to Retrace the Origins of an Ecosystem: The Case of Four Plants Endemic to the Central Florida Scrub

The results support eastern North America as the dominant origin of the plant species of the central Florida scrub, however, contrary to the current eastern hypothesis, molecular dating suggests that the origins of the four endemics predate the last glacial cycles.

Pollen morphology of the family Polygalaceae (Fabales)

An overview of pollen morphology from all genera in the family Polygalaceae is presented to assist systematic studies of the Fabales clade, and morphological similarities and differences broadly correspond with relationships suggested by recent molecular phylogenies.

Colonization of the Galápagos Islands by plants with no specific syndromes for long-distance dispersal: a new perspective

Irrespective of the roles of the diff erent agents involved in LDD, diaspores with no special syndrome for LDD (unassisted diapores), such as many dry fruits, have been successful in reaching and colonizing the Gal a pagos archipelago.

Elusive Relationships Within Order Fabales: Phylogenetic Analyses Using matK and rbcL Sequence Data1

A reappraisal of relationships within Fabales addresses past taxon sampling deficiencies, and employs parsimony and Bayesian approaches using sequences from the plastid regions rbcL and matK, and considers Polygalaceae as sister to the rest of the order Fabales with Leguminosae more closely related to Quillajaceae + Surianaceae the most likely hypothesis of interfamilial relationships.

Associated evolution of fruit size, fruit colour and spines in Neotropical palms

It is found that the evolution of fruit colour and fruit size was associated in Neotropical palms, supporting the adaptive interpretation of seed‐dispersal syndromes and highlighting the role of frugivores in shaping plant evolution.



Correlates of Diversification in the Plant Clade Dipsacales: Geographic Movement and Evolutionary Innovations

These results argue against a simple deterministic relationship between dispersal and diversification: like other factors that may influence the probability of speciation and/or extinction, the impact of dispersal on diversification rates depends on being in the right place at the right time.

Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the tertiary.

Tertiary macrofossils of the flowering plant family Leguminosae were used as time constraints to estimate ages of the earliest branching clades identified in separate plastid matK and rbcL gene phylogenies, pointing to a rapid family-wide diversification, and predict few if any legume fossils prior to the Cenozoic.

The rise of the ants: a phylogenetic and ecological explanation.

  • E. WilsonB. Hölldobler
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
A history of major ecological adaptations at the subfamily level appears to have been a mid-Cretaceous initial radiation in forest ground litter and soil coincident with the rise of the angiosperms, followed by an expansion of some of the lineages, aided by changes in diet away from dependence on predation, upward into the canopy, and outward into more xeric environments.

Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants

The largest ant molecular phylogenetic data set published to date is generated, containing ≈6 kb of DNA sequence from 162 species representing all 20 ant subfamilies and 10 aculeate outgroup families, and casts strong doubt on the existence of a poneroid clade as currently defined.

Seed Size, Dispersal Syndromes, and the Rise of the Angiosperms: Evidence and Hypothesis

Observations on propagule size and dispersal type are extended through the fossil record and it is proposed that these have been related throughout the history of the angiosperms and underwent an intensive period of change in the latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

Systematic and evolutionary implications of rbcL sequence variation in Rosaceae

RbcL-based phylogenies suggest that chromosome numbers are more reliable indicators of some generic alliances than the more commonly used fruit types and that the subfamily Maloideae may have descended from spiraeoid ancestors and the pome is derived from follicular or capsular fruit types.


The phylogenetic distribution of clades with an exceedingly high number of species suggests that traits that confer high rates of diversification evolved independently in different instances and do not characterize the angiosperms as a whole.

Myrmecochorous plants in Australia and their dispersal by ants

Field experinfents and observations indicate that c. 1500 species, representing 87 genera and 24 families, of Australian vascular plants are myrmecochorous, i.e. regularly dispersed by ants because

Chloroplast gene sequence data suggest a single origin of the predisposition for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in angiosperms.

It is indicated that only one lineage of closely related taxa achieved the underlying genetic architecture necessary for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules.