author={George William Salt},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  • G. Salt
  • Published 1 May 1968
  • Geology
  • Biological Reviews
Some of the following propositions are to be read as suggestions or hypotheses, supported by circumstantial or direct evidence, but not yet rigorously demonstrated. An estimate of the significance to be attached to each should be gathered from the body of the paper rather than from the following brief statements. 

A note on the defence reactions of insects to Protozoa

It is suggested that the situation with regard to protozoan parasites, including some genera for which insects act as vectors between vertebrate hosts, may be necessary to be re-examine.

The Adaptability of Introduced Biological Control Agents

The ecological circumstances necessary for successful establishment of an entomophagous insect in a new environment are complex. The climate must be suitable in its direct effects on development,

Immune defense and suppression in insects

Biological properties of some of the host proteins suggest that they might be involved in the insect defense reaction of the insect endoparasitoids.

Experimental studies in insect parasitism. XVI. The mechanism of the resistance of Nemeritis to defence reactions

  • G. Salt
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1973
The egg of the ichneumon wasp Nemeritis canescens is shown to be resistant to the defence reactions of its usual host, Ephestia kuehniella, by virtue of a coating on its surface, and the possibility that substances chemically similar to the particles of Nemersitis might inhibit cell adhesion and aggregation in vertebrates is briefly discussed.

Teratocytes as a Means of Resistance to Cellular Defence Reactions

It is suggested that teratocytes, the giant cells which develop from the trophamnion of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, serve as a means of resistance to the defence reactions of insect hosts and the consequent depletion of materials in the haemolymph would impede or inhibit haematopoiesis and prevent an effective haemocytic reaction to the young parasitoids.

Insect Host Responses Against Parasitoids and the Parasitoid’s Resistance: With Emphasis on the Lepidoptera-Hymenoptera Association

The major factors responsible for the immune response of vertebrates appear to be lacking in insects and the mechanism of the host’s defense reaction or the means by which a parasitoid escapes it is unclear.

Role of virus-like particles in parasitoid-host interaction of insects.

A simple proposal would be that hypothetical viruses, which were able to suppress immune reaction in lepidopteran hosts, were incorporated into a Parasitoid wasp to become part of the life cycle of the parasitoid.

Host Regulation by Insect Parasitoids

The physiological and biochemical changes that occur after parasitoidism are described and include changes in hemolymph solutes, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogen metabolism and excretion, as well as changes in select tissues including the endocrine and reproductive system of the host.



Investigations on the Resistance of Mealybugs (Homoptera) to Parasitization by Internal Hymenopterous Parasites, with Special Reference to Phagocytosis

The resistance or immunity of insects to invading organisms is an accepted phenomenon about which comparatively little is known. However, investigations regarding the use of beneficial insects in

Immune responses of some insects to some bacterial antigens.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula antigen remained in the blood of larvae of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), during the resistant period of the insect. Bacterial antigen present in ...

Experimental studies in insect parasitism XI. The haemocytic reaction of a caterpillar under varied conditions

  • G. Salt
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1960
It is concluded that surface properties of the parasite or implant determine whether or not it shall be encapsulated.

Experimental Studies in Insect Parasitism. VI.—Host Suitability

The host list of most groups of parasites is greatly limited by the inaccessibility of many species; it is further restricted in some groups by the selection exercised by the parasite; and it is finally limited in all groups (and especially the parasitoid Diptera) by the unsuitability of many infected animals.

Experimental Studies in Insect Parasitism

Trichogramma evanescens is able to distinguish healthy from parasitised hosts, and when few hosts are available can restrain itself for 8 hours to the deposition of 5 per cent. of its available eggs.

Experimental studies in insect parasitism. IX. The reactions of a stick insect to an alien parasite

  • G. Salt
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B - Biological Sciences
  • 1956
Eggs and larvae of an ichneumon fly injected into adults of a stick insect, Carausius morosus, elicited two defence reactions, both by living and by dead parasites; the haemocytic reaction appeared to be elicited by clean glass rods, but the melanin reaction was not.

Immune Surface of Eggs of a Parasitic Insect

The ability of eggs of Nemeritis canescens to avoid a defence reaction in caterpillars of Ephestia kuehniella was investigated and it was found that a property of the surface acquired by the egg during its passage through the genital ducts of the adult parasite enabled the egg to escape a haemocytic reaction.

Entomophagous Insects

A distinguished entomologist on the staff of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Curtis P. Clausen's own studies have been mainly directed to the parasitic Hymenoptera and he is well qualified to write a book of this kind.

The Biology and Distribution in France of the Larval Parasites of Cydia pomonella, L.

It is concluded that predacious birds, and the removal of larvae with the crop, must be important factors in the control of the Codling Moth in France.

Experimental studies in insect parasitism XIII. The haemocytic reaction of a caterpillar to eggs of its habitual parasite

  • G. Salt
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1965
The property of its surface that enables the egg of Nemeritis to avoid evoking a haemocytic reaction in Ephestia is acquired in the region of the calyx, where also the visible layer appears on the outer surface of the chorion.