author={Hugh D Loxdale and Jim Hardie and Susan E. Halbert and Robert G. Foottit and Neil A. C. Kidd and Clive I. Carter},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
1. Aphids are notorious pests of world agriculture. Even so, uncertainty persists as to their capacity for successful aerial dispersal. Evidence exists that, under some conditions, aphids can be wind‐borne over long distances, i.e. hundreds of kilometers over desert or sea. It has been argued, in the recent past, that this phenomenon may be part of a strategy to locate fresh host plants in new distant areas. However, the proportion of these insects successfully colonizing new hosts is unknown. 

Aphid colony turn‐over influences the spatial distribution of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae over the wheat growing season

This work has shown that phytophagous insects, such as crop pests living in agroecosystems, have a high ability to find and exploit new patches in temporary habitats, and their invasion is of great agricultural importance.

Polymorphism and Damage of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea)

It is shown that damage of aphids is determined by their mode of feeding on plant sap, gregariousness, short- and long-range dispersal, and intraspecific variation.

Walking aphids can partake in within-field dispersal to distant plants

The role of landscape context in biological control of cereal aphids

Novel analytical approaches using random forests were used to explore temporal and inter-specific variation in the influence of landscape context on species of aphid and hymenopterous parasitoid in winter wheat fields in the UK, and to produce models predicting the abundance of aphids, parasitoids and syrphid larvae as functional groups.

Symbiont‐conferred protection against Hymenopteran parasitoids in aphids: how general is it?

1. Hosts are often targeted by multiple species of parasites, leading to a confluence of selective pressures on them. In response, hosts may either evolve defences that act very generally, or

Migratory Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Habitat Selection in Agricultural and Adjacent Natural Habitats

Paired suction traps were used to study the habitat choice of migrating aphids in adjacent crop and natural habitats in east central Illinois, finding that outside-source aphids were more abundant in the row-crop than the restored prairie, despite the absence of potential host plants.

Tracking movement in small insect pests, with special reference to aphid populations

A national survey-system that could be managed by specialist centres and involving members of the Public, that would enable invasive pest insect populations to be tracked efficiently is outlined, and an insect tracking mandate is described that will promote the standardisation of population movement measurements.

Cereal aphid movement: general principles and simulation modelling

An overview of how knowledge about cereal aphid flight and migration can be utilized by mechanistic simulation models is presented, and specific gaps in knowledge are identified for researchers who may wish to further scientific understanding of aphidFlight behaviour.

Characterization of microsatellite loci in the aphid species Metopeurum fuscoviride (Homoptera, Aphididae)

Six polymorphic microsatellite loci are isolated in the aphid species Metopeurum fuscoviride Stroyan, monophagous on the common Tansy, indicating that the resolution will be high enough to study differentiation on a small spatial scale.

Factors associated with winged forms of soybean aphid and an examination of North American spatial dynamics of this species in the context of migratory behaviour

Summer flight activity A. glycines was explained best by the level of aphid infestation in fields local to the trapping site, although the autumn female flight activity peak and male activity was best explained by photoperiod.



Long-range aerial dispersal of cereal aphids as virus vectors in North America

It is concluded that long-range dispersal has received inadequate attention in relation to its biological and economic importance.


There has yet been no evidence of any resulting geographical pattern in the epidemiology of aphids, nor any field assessment of the relative contribution made by the environment and by the individual behaviour to the ultimate spatial distribution of populations, so it remains to be seen if aphids such as Myzus persicae (Sulz.) are as effective in finding and exploiting their spatially mobile resources as their highly sophisticated resource-searching adaptations might lead one to expect.

The overwintering and abundance of cereal aphids

Close relationships were not demonstrable between the numbers of alate M. dirhodum, S. avenae and Rhopalosiphum spp.

Effects of population density on alienicolae of Aphis fabae Scop.: The expression of migratory urge among alatae in the field

SUMMARY Alate Aphis fabae from field infestations on beans and sugar beet were tested for flight before parturition and divided into migrants, flyers and non-flyers. More alatae were produced,

Long range migration of aphids into Sweden

A five year study of migration of aphids across the southern part of the Baltic Sea is reported. The aphids were caught in a suction trap placed on a lighthouse 50 m from the shoreline. Large


The dynamics of thimbleberry aphid on its wild perennial host at different parts of its geographical range are compared, and the external factors which restrict both the dynamics and the range are examined.

Winter mortality, development and reproduction in a field population of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in England

Population change in Myzus persicae (Sulz.) overwintering on spring cabbage in south-eastern England was studied in relation to meteorological and biological factors. Leaf surface wetness and

Spatial pattern of abundance of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, in Britain

The wide distribution of wild hosts in late summer affects the numbers of autumn migrants, and the regional variation in abundance of E. europaeus affects the success of the aphid in finding sites for overwintering eggs.

The migratory ambit of the hop aphid and its significance in aphid population dynamics.

Of about 320 species of aphids whose aerial distributions were examined, only sexual autumn migrants of the hop aphid originated from dense, isolated and persistent population 'patches', and migration was not random, but directional orientation was negligible.

Visual responses of flying aphids and their chemical modification

Five winged forms of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, were subjected to 30 min of free flight in a recently designed, automated wind tunnel and only 27% of generation 1 gynoparae responded to the target as did 50% of males.