THE RATE OF BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS INFERRED FROM ADVANCED LIGO OBSERVATIONS SURROUNDING GW150914

@article{Collaboration2016THERO,
  title={THE RATE OF BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS INFERRED FROM ADVANCED LIGO OBSERVATIONS SURROUNDING GW150914},
  author={The Ligo Scientific Collaboration and T. M. C. Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Thomas Abbott and Matthew Robert Abernathy and Fausto Acernese and Kendall Ackley and Carl Adams and Todd Adams and Paolo Addesso and Rana X. Adhikari and V B Adya and Christoph Affeldt and Michalis Agathos and Kazuhiro Agatsuma and Nancy Aggarwal and Odylio D. Aguiar and Lloyd Paul Aiello and A. Ain and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Annalisa Allocca and Paul A Altin and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and Koji Arai and M. C. Araya and C. C. Arceneaux and Joseph Areeda and Nicolas Arnaud and K. G. Arun and Stefano Ascenzi and Gregory Ashton and Melanie Ast and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and Peter Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and Stanislav Babak and Philippe Bacon and M. K. M. Bader and Paul T. Baker and F. Baldaccini and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and J. C. B. Barayoga and S. E. Barclay and Barry C. Barish and Daniel H. N. Barker and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and D{\'a}niel Barta and Jms Bartlett and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and Andrea Basti and J. C. Batch and Christoph Baune and Viswanath Bavigadda and Marco Bazzan and Beate Behnke and Michał Bejger and A. S. Bell and C. J. Bell and B. K. Berger and Jes Bergman and Gerald Bergmann and Christopher P. L. Berry and Diego Bersanetti and Alessandro Bertolini and J Betzwieser and Swetha Bhagwat and R. Bhandare and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and Jeremy Birch and R Birney and Sebastien Biscans and A. Bisht and Massimiliano Bitossi and Christopher Michael Biwer and M. A. Bizouard and J. K. Blackburn and Carl Blair and David G Blair and R. M. Blair and Steven Bloemen and Oliver Bock and T. P. Bodiya and Michel Boer and Gilles Bogaert and Christina Bogan and Alejandro Boh{\'e} and P. Bojtos and Charlotte Z. Bond and F. Bondu and Romain Bonnand and Boris A. Boom and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Suvadeep Bose and Yann Bouffanais and Aaron T. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Vladimir B. Braginsky and Marica Branchesi and James E. Brau and Tristan Briant and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Patrick Brockill and A. F. Brooks and D. A. Brown and D D Brown and Nic M. Brown and C. C. Buchanan and Aaron Buikema and Tomasz Bulik and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and D. Buskulic and Christelle Buy and Robert L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Juan Calder{\'o}n Bustillo and Thomas A. Callister and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and Kipp Cannon and J. Cao and C. D. Capano and E. Capocasa and Franco Carbognani and Santiago Caride and J. Casanueva Diaz and Claudio Casentini and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Carlos Cepeda and Liala Baiardi and G. Cerretani and Elisa Cesarini and R. Chakraborty and Tara Chalermsongsak and Sydney JoAnne Chamberlin and Man Leong Chan and S. Chao and P R Charlton and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and H. Y. Chen and Y. R. Chen and C. Cheng and Andrea Chincarini and Antonino Chiummo and H. S. Cho and M. Cho and Jong H. Chow and Nelson Christensen and Qi Chu and Sheon S Y Chua and S. Chung and Giacomo Ciani and Filiberto Clara and J A Clark and F. Cleva and Eugenio Coccia and P.-F. Cohadon and Alberto Colla and Christophe Collette and Lynn R. Cominsky and Marcio Constancio and Andrea Conte and L Conti and Deborah J. Cook and Thomas R. Corbitt and Neil J. Cornish and Alessandra Corsi and S. Cortese and C. A. Costa and Michael W. Coughlin and S Coughlin and J.-P. Coulon and Stefanie Countryman and Peter Couvares and Edith Cowan and D. M. Coward and M. J. Cowart and D. C. Coyne and Robert Coyne and Kieran Craig and Jolien D. E. Creighton and Jonathan Cripe and S. Gwynne Crowder and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and Tito Dal Canton and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and N. S. Darman and Vincenzino Dattilo and Itishri Dave and H. P. Daveloza and M. Davier and G. S. Davies and E J Daw and Richard N. Day and Soumi De and Daniel B. DeBra and Gergely Debreczeni and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Martina de Laurentis and Samuel Del'eglise and Walter del Pozzo and Thomas Denker and Thomas Dent and H. Dereli and Vladimir Dergachev and Rosario De Rosa and R. T. Derosa and Riccardo DeSalvo and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and M. C. D'iaz and L. Di Fiore and Matteo di Giovanni and Alberto Di Lieto and Sibilla Di Pace and I. Di Palma and Angela Di Virgilio and Goran Dojcinoski and Vincent Dolique and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and Suresh Doravari and Rebecca Douglas and Turlough P. Downes and M. Drago and Ronald W. P. Drever and J C Driggers and Zhihui Du and M. Ducrot and Sheila E. Dwyer and Tega Boro Edo and Matthew C. Edwards and Anamaria Effler and H. B. Eggenstein and Phil Ehrens and Jan Eichholz and Stephen S. Eikenberry and William Engels and Reed Essick and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Thomas M. Evans and Ryan Everett and Maxim Factourovich and V Fafone and H. Fair and Stephen Fairhurst and X. Fan and Qi Fang and Stefania Farinon and Benjamin Farr and Will M. Farr and Marc Favata and Marc P. de Fays and H. Fehrmann and Martin M. Fejer and I. Ferrante and E.C. Ferreira and Federico Ferrini and Francesco Fidecaro and Irene Fiori and Donatella Fiorucci and Rebecca Fisher and R. Flaminio and Mark Fletcher and Heather Fong and J.-D. Fournier and S. Franco and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and Volker Frey and T. T. Fricke and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and P. J. Fulda and Matthew Fyffe and Hunter Gabbard and Jonathan R. Gair and Luca Gammaitoni and Sampada Gaonkar and F. Garufi and Alberto Gatto and G. Gaur and N. C. Gehrels and Gianluca Gemme and Bruce Gendre and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Julia George and L'aszl'o 'A. Gergely and Vincent Germain and Archisman Ghosh and S. Ghosh and J. A. Giaime and K. D. Giardina and A. Giazotto and Karl Gill and A. Glaefke and Evan Goetz and Ryan P. Goetz and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Gond{\'a}n and Gabriela Gonz'alez and J. M. Gonzalez Castro and A. Gopakumar and N. A. Gordon and Michael L. Gorodetsky and Sarah E. Gossan and Matthieu Gosselin and R. Gouaty and Christian Graef and Philip Graff and Massimo Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Giuseppe Greco and Andrew Green and Paul J. Groot and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and G. Guidi and X. Guo and A. Gupta and M. Gupta and Kaitlin E. Gushwa and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and Jan J. Hacker and Bernard Hall and Evan D. Hall and Giles D. Hammond and Maria Haney and M. M. Hanke and Jonathan Hanks and Chad Hanna and Mark Hannam and James E. Hanson and T Hardwick and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and M. J. Hart and Michael T. Hartman and Carl-Johan Haster and K. Haughian and Antoine Heidmann and Matthew Heintze and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Gary Hemming and Martin Hendry and Ik Siong Heng and John Hennig and Alastair Heptonstall and Mich{\`e}le Heurs and Stefan Hild and David C. Hoak and Kari Alison Hodge and David Jonathan Hofman and Sophie Elizabeth Hollitt and K. Holt and Daniel E. Holz and Philip F. Hopkins and D. J. Hosken and James Hough and E. Alasdair Houston and E J Howell and Y. M. Hu and S. Huang and Eliu A. Huerta and Dominique Huet and Barbara J. Hughey and Sascha Husa and S. H. Huttner and T. Huynh--Dinh and Ashikuzzaman Idrisy and Nathaniel M. Indik and D. R. Ingram and Ra Inta and Hafizah Noor Isa and J. M. Isac and Maximiliano Isi and Gabriela Islas and Tomoki Isogai and Bala R. Iyer and Kiwamu Izumi and T. Jacqmin and H. J. Jang and Karan Jani and Piotr Jaranowski and S. Jawahar and F. Jim'enez-Forteza and W. W. Johnson and D. I. Jones and R. Jones and R. J. G. Jonker and Li Ju and K. Haris and Chinmay Kalaghatgi and Vicky Kalogera and S Kandhasamy and G. Kang and Jonah Kanner and Sudarshan Karki and Marie Kasprzack and Erotokritos Katsavounidis and William G. Katzman and Steffen Kaufer and Tejinder Kaur and Keita Kawabe and Fumiko Kawazoe and Fabien K'ef'elian and Marcel S. Kehl and David Keitel and David Bruce Kelley and William P. Kells and Ross Kennedy and Joey Shapiro Key and Alexander Khalaidovski and Farid Ya. Khalili and I Khan and S. A. Khan and Z. A. Khan and E. A. Khazanov and N Kijbunchoo and C Kim and J. H. Kim and K. Kim and Namjun Kim and Namjun Kim and Y.-M. Kim and Eleanor J King and P. J. King and D. L. Kinzel and J S Kissel and L. Kleybolte and Sergey Klimenko and S. M. Koehlenbeck and Keiko Kokeyama and Soumen Koley and V. T. Kondrashov and Antonios Kontos and Mikhail Korobko and William Z Korth and Izabela Jonek Kowalska and Darby Kozak and V. Kringel and Badri Krishnan and Andrzej Kr'olak and C. Krueger and G. Kuehn and P. Kumar and L. Kuo and Adam Kutynia and Benjamin D. Lackey and Michael Landry and Jacob Lange and Brian Lantz and Paul D. Lasky and Albert Lazzarini and Claudia Lazzaro and Paola Leaci and Sean Leavey and Eric O. Lebigot and C. H. Lee and H. K. Lee and H. m. Lee and K. H. Lee and Amber Lenon and Matteo Leonardi and Jonathan Leong and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and Yuri Levin and B. M. Levine and T. G. F. Li and Adam A. Libson and Tyson B. Littenberg and N. A. Lockerbie and Joshua Logue and A. L. Lombardi and Janet E. Lord and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and James Lough and Harald Luck and Andrew Lundgren and J. Luo and R. Lynch and Y. Ma and T. Macdonald and B. Machenschalk and Myron Macinnis and D Macleod and F. Maga na-Sandoval and Ryan Magee and M. Mageswaran and E. Majorana and I. Maksimovic and Valeria Malvezzi and Na Man and Ilya Mandel and Vuk Mandic and Vanessa Mangano and Georgia L. Mansell and Magnus Manske and Maddalena Mantovani and Fabio Marchesoni and F. Marion and Szabolcs M'arka and Zsuzsa M'arka and Ashot Markosyan and Edward Maros and F. Martelli and Lionel Martellini and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and Denis Martynov and J. N. Marx and K. O. Mason and A. Masserot and Thomas Massinger and M. Masso-Reid and F. Matichard and Luca Matone and Nergis Mavalvala and N. Mazumder and Giulio Mazzolo and R. McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Scott McCormick and Scott C. McGuire and G. McIntyre and Jess McIver and David J. McManus and Sean T. McWilliams and Duncan Meacher and Grant David Meadors and Jeroen Meidam and Andrew Melatos and Greg Mendell and D. Mendoza-Gandara and R. A. Mercer and E. L. Merilh and Mourad Merzougui and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Cody Messick and Patrick M. Meyers and Federica Mezzani and Haixing Miao and Christine Michel and Hannah Middleton and Eugeniy Mikhailov and Leopoldo Milano and J. R. Miller and Margaret Millhouse and Yury Minenkov and Jin Ming and Saeed Mirshekari and Chandra Kant Mishra and Subhasish Mitra and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Andrea Moggi and M. Mohan and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and M. Montani and B. C. Moore and Christopher J. Moore and Daniel Moraru and Gerardo Moreno and S. R. Morriss and Kasem Mossavi and B. Mours and Conor M Mow-Lowry and Chris L Mueller and Guido Mueller and Alistair William Muir and Arunava Mukherjee and Dipanjan Mukherjee and Subroto Mukherjee and Nikhil Mukund and Adam J Mullavey and Jesper Munch and David Murphy and P. G. Murray and Antonis Mytidis and Ilaria Nardecchia and L. Naticchioni and Rabindranath Nayak and Valentin Necula and Kalina V. Nedkova and Gijs Nelemans and MorgantiN. Neri and Ansel Neunzert and G. P. Newton and T. T. Nguyen and Alex B. Nielsen and Samaya M. Nissanke and Alexander H. Nitz and F. Nocera and Dan Nolting and Marc Eric Normandin and Laura K Nuttall and Jason Oberling and Evan Ochsner and Joseph O'Dell and Eric Oelker and G. H. Ogin and J J Oh and S. H. Oh and Frank Ohme and Miquel Oliver and Patrick Oppermann and Richard J. Oram and Brian O'reilly and Richard O’Shaughnessy and David J. Ottaway and R. S. Ottens and Harry Overmier and Benjamin J. Owen and Archana Pai and Sanjay A. Pai and Jordan Palamos and O. V. Palashov and Cristiano Palomba and A. Pal-Singh and Huang Wei Pan and Chris Pankow and Francesco Pannarale and Bhasker Pant and Federico Paoletti and Angela Delli Paoli and Maria Alessandra Papa and H. R. Paris and William Parker and Daniela Pascucci and A. Pasqualetti and R. Passaquieti and D. Passuello and Barbara Patricelli and Z. Patrick and Brynley Pearlstone and M. Pedraza and Richard Pedurand and Larne Pekowsky and Arnaud Pele and Stephen Penn and Antonio Perreca and M. Phelps and Ornella Juliana Piccinni and Mikhael Pichot and Francesco Piergiovanni and Vincenzo Pierro and Gabriel Pillant and L. Pinard and Innocenzo M. Pinto and Matthew Pitkin and R. Poggiani and P. Popolizio and Edward K. Porter and A. Post and Jade Powell and Jayanti Prasad and Valeriu Predoi and Sammanani Shakya Premachandra and Tanner Prestegard and Larry R. Price and M. Prijatelj and M. Principe and Stephen Privitera and Giovanni Andrea Prodi and L G Prokhorov and Oliver Puncken and M. Punturo and P. Puppo and Michael Purrer and H. Qi and Jiayi Qin and Volker Quetschke and Eric Antonio Quintero and Ryan Quitzow-James and F. J. Raab and D. S. Rabeling and Hugh Radkins and P{\'e}ter Raffai and Sendhil Raja and Malik Rakhmanov and P. Rapagnani and V Raymond and Massimiliano Razzano and Virginia Re and Jocelyn Read and C. M. Reed and Tania Regimbau and Luca Rei and Stuart Reid and David Reitze and H. Rew and Steven Reyes and F. Ricci and Keith Riles and N. A. Robertson and Raymond Robie and Florent Robinet and Alessandro Rocchi and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins and Vincent Roma and Rocco Romano and Gleb Romanov and J. H. Romie and D. Rosi'nska and Sheila Rowan and A. Rudiger and P. Ruggi and Kris Ryan and Surabhi Sachdev and Travis Sadecki and Laleh Sadeghian and Livio Salconi and M. Saleem and Francesco Salemi and Anuradha Samajdar and Letizia Sammut and Laura Sampson and E. J. Sanchez and V. D. Sandberg and B. Sandeen and Joyce Sanders and Beno{\^i}t Sassolas and Bangalore Sathyaprakash and Peter Saulson and O. E. S. Sauter and Richard L. Savage and A. Sawadsky and Paul Schale and Roland Schilling and J. Schmidt and Patricia Schmidt and Roman Schnabel and Robert M. S. Schofield and A. 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Stephens and Simon Stevenson and Robert Stone and Kenneth Strain and Nicolas Straniero and Giulia Stratta and N. A. Strauss and Sergey Strigin and Riccardo Sturani and Al. Stuver and Tiffany Summerscales and L. Sun and P. Sutton and Bas Swinkels and Marek J. Szczepa'nczyk and Matteo Tacca and Dipongkar Talukder and David B. Tanner and M'arton T'apai and S. P. Tarabrin and Andrea Taracchini and R. D. Taylor and Thomas Theeg and Mirunalini Thirugnanasambandam and E. G. Thomas and M. Thomas and Pieter Thomas and Keith A. Thorne and Kip S. Thorne and Eric Thrane and Suresh Tiwari and Vaibhav Tiwari and K. Tokmakov and C. Tomlinson and Mauro Tonelli and Cristina Torres and C. I. Torrie and Daniel Toyra and Flavio Travasso and Gary Traylor and Daniele Trifir{\`o} and Maria Concetta Tringali and Lucia Trozzo and M. Tse and M Turconi and Darkhan Tuyenbayev and Dennis Wayne Ugolini and C. S. Unnikrishnan and Alexander L. Urban and S. A. Usman and Henning Vahlbruch and Gabriele Vajente and Guillermo Valdes and Michele Vallisneri and Niels Anton van Bakel and Martinus van Beuzekom and J. F. J. van den Brand and Chris van den Broeck and Daniel Vander-Hyde and Laura van der Schaaf and Joris van Heijningen and A. A. van Veggel and M Vardaro and Steve Vass and M'aty'as Vas'uth and Ruslan Vaulin and Alberto Vecchio and Gabriele Vedovato and John Veitch and Peter J. Veitch and Krishna Venkateswara and D. Verkindt and F. Vetrano and Andrea Vicer'e and Serena Vinciguerra and David Vine and J.-Y. Vinet and Salvatore Vitale and Thomas Vo and Helios Vocca and Cheryl Vorvick and Daniel Voss and W. D. Vousden and Sergey P. Vyatchanin and Andrew R. Wade and Leslie Wade and Madeline Wade and Marissa Walker and L. Wallace and Sin'ead Walsh and G. Wang and H. Wang and M. Wang and X. F. Wang and Y. Wang and Robert L. Ward and Jimmy Warner and Michal Was and Betsy Weaver and L.-W. Wei and Michael Weinert and Alan J. Weinstein and Rainer Weiss and Timothy A. Welborn and Longping Wen and Peter Wessels and Tobias Westphal and Karl Wette and John T. Whelan and Darren J. White and Bernard F Whiting and R. D. Williams and Andrew R. Williamson and Josh Willis and Benno Willke and M. H. Wimmer and Walter Winkler and Christopher C. Wipf and Holger Wittel and Graham Woan and John R. Worden and J. Lenore Wright and G. Wu and Joshua Yablon and William Yam and H. Yamamoto and Cregg C. Yancey and Ming Yap and H. Yu and M. Yvert and A. K. Zadro.zny and Laura Zangrando and Michele Zanolin and Jean Pierre Zendri and Michael Zevin and F. Zhang and L. Zhang and M. Zhang and Y. Zhang and C Zhao and M. Zhou and Z. Zhou and X J Zhu and Michael Edward Zucker and Sarah Zuraw and J. G. Zweizig},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  year={2016},
  volume={833}
}
A transient gravitational-wave signal, GW150914, was identified in the twin Advanced LIGO detectors on 2015 September 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC. To assess the implications of this discovery, the detectors remained in operation with unchanged configurations over a period of 39 days around the time of the signal. At the detection statistic threshold corresponding to that observed for GW150914, our search of the 16 days of simultaneous two-detector observational data is estimated to have a false-alarm… 

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