author={Kit Fine},
  journal={The Review of Symbolic Logic},
  pages={1 - 25}
  • K. Fine
  • Published 12 December 2011
  • Philosophy
  • The Review of Symbolic Logic
Abstract I lay down a system of structural rules for various notions of ground and establish soundness and completeness. 

On defining the notion of complete and immediate formal grounding

This definition of the notion of complete and immediate formal grounding through the concepts of derivability and complexity yields a subtle and precise analysis of the concept of grounding in several paradigmatic cases.

Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

Abstract We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We

The logic of relative fundamentality

I introduce a proof system for the logic of relative fundamentality, as well as a natural semantics with respect to which the system is both sound and complete. I then “modalise” the logic, and

The puzzles of ground

I outline and provide a solution to some paradoxes of ground.

An Impure Logic of Representational Grounding

A semantic characterisation of a system for the logic of grounding similar to the system introduced by Kit Fine in his “Guide to Ground” and a variant of that system which excludes the possibility of what Fine calls ‘zero-grounding’ is given.

A Critical Overview of the Most Recent Logics of Grounding

In this paper our aim is twofold: on the one hand, to present in a clear and faithful way two recent contributions to the logic of grounding, namely Correia (2014), and Fine (2012a); on the other

On constructing a logic for the notion of complete and immediate formal grounding

The aim is to construct a logic for the notion of complete and immediate formal grounding based on that definition that will have the form of a calculus of natural deduction, will be proved to be sound and complete and will allow us to have fine-grained grounding principles.

On Some Counterexamples to the Transitivity of Grounding

I discuss three recent counterexamples to the transitivity of grounding due to Jonathan Schaffer. I argue that the counterexamples don’t work and draw some conclusions about the relationship between

The emergence of ground: some limitative results

The divide between foundationalism and infinitism about grounding is dealt with and a generalized version of this thesis about the emergence of ground suffers from some serious limits and it cannot be accepted without a significant departure from the standard notion of grounding.

Grounding principles for (relevant) implication

The present paper aims at repairing this situation by proposing adequate grounding principles for relevant implication, because of the interaction between negation and implication, new grounding principles concerning negation will also arise.




A logic for ‘because’ is developed based on systematic connections between ‘ because’ and the truth-functional connectives.

Modality: Metaphysics, Logic, and Epistemology

Introduction PART I: METAPHYSICS AND LOGIC 1. Merely Possible Propositions Response to Robert Stalnaker 2. Logical Necessity 3. Semantic Necessity 4. Modal Logic within Counterfactual Logic 5. Is

Metaphysical Dependence: Grounding and Reduction

This essay is a plea for ideological toleration. Philosophers are right to be fussy about the words they use, especially in metaphysics where bad vocabulary has been a source of grief down through

Term Rewriting Systems

This chapter presents the basic concepts of term rewriting that are needed in this book and suggests several survey articles that can be consulted.

Troubles with Truth-making: Necessitation and Projection

The main question of this paper is how to understand the notion of a truth-maker. In section 1, I show that the identification of truth-making with necessitation cannot capture the pretheoretic


On Engendering an Illusion of Understanding