author={Anthony Paul Andrews and E. Wyllys Andrews and Fernando Robles Castellanos},
  journal={Ancient Mesoamerica},
  pages={151 - 156}
Recent adjustments to the chronology of the northern Maya Lowlands have brought about a closer alignment of the decline of Terminal Classic/Early Postclassic Yucatecan polities with the collapse of the southern Maya states. The collapse of the entire Classic-period societal structure throughout the lowlands can now be compressed into a 200- or 250-year period and seen as a progressive chain of events that began in the south and culminated with the fall of Chichen Itza in the eleventh century… 

What Maya Collapse? Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands

Interest in the lowland Maya collapse is stronger than ever, and there are now hundreds of studies that focus on the era from approximately A.D. 750 to A.D. 1050. In the past, scholars have tended to

The Long Duration: The Cultural History of Yucatán

In Annales methodology, the long duration encompasses forces that act at the longest wavelength of time. This includes the historical trajectory of civilizations and the gradual, cumulative processes

5 Ancient Climate and Archaeology: Uxmal, Chichén Itzá, and Their Collapse at the End of the Terminal Classic Period

Archaeological data and evidence of climatic change are used to suggest that the collapse of Uxmal and Chichen Itza in the Northern Maya Lowlands was the result of long and recurrent drought episodes

Kax and kol: Collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization

This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas.

Assessing the Role of Preclassic Traditions in the Formation of Early Classic Yucatec Cultures, México

Abstract In the northern Maya lowlands the transition from the Late Preclassic to the Early Classic is poorly understood. Despite the knowledge that ceramic traditions underwent drastic changes, the

Drought and Its Demographic Effects in the Maya Lowlands

Increasing evidence supports the role of climate change in the disintegration of regional polities in the Maya lowlands at the end of the Classic Period (750–1000 CE). However, the demographic


Abstract Terminal Classic circular architecture has been characterized as a “non-Classic” trait stemming from Chontal-Itza groups from the Gulf lowlands who developed a long-distance,

THE CHRONOLOGY OF MAYAPAN : New Radiocarbon Evidence

Thirty-eight radiocarbon dates from Mayapan provide new information about the Postclassic chronology of this city. We analyze ceramic frequencies associated with our radiocarbon samples and discuss

Maya collapse cycles

  • M. Masson
  • Political Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2012
Scientific research has pushed forward the understanding of the complex processes underlying the Classic era Maya collapse, which is now known to have been the culmination of a range of different factors across a diverse political and biotic landscape.



Late Postclassic lowland Maya archaeology

The archaeology of the Late Postclassic lowland Maya (ca. A.D. 1200–1517) is summarized and reviewed. The history of past research is outlined, and investigations on topics of major scholarly concern

Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization

THE Maya civilization developed around 3,000 years ago in Mesoamerica, and after flourishing during the so-called Classic period, it collapsed around 750–900 AD1. It has been specula ted2–6 that

The Ceramic Chronology of Ek Balam, Yucatan, Mexico

Abstract Since 1984, the Ek Balam Project has been investigating the organization and developmental history of a large Maya polity in the northeastern part of the Yucatan Peninsula. The survey

Yula, Yucatan, Mexico

Abstract A major impediment to understanding the Terminal Classic to Early Postclassic transition in northern Yucatan has been the lack of a reliable ceramic chronology defined from stratigraphic

The Fall of Chichen Itza: A Preliminary Hypothesis

The fall of the Early Postclassic capital of Chichen Itza is generally described in native chronicles as the result of a widespread revolt of native Yucatec Maya against the Itzá rulers of northern

The Chronology of Yaxuna

Abstract Research at the ancient Maya city of Yaxuna, located in the heart of the Yucatan Peninsula, has provided sufficient data to suggest a preliminary chronological framework for the cultural

The great Maya droughts : water, life, and death

Between AD 800 and 1000, during what is known as the Classic Maya Collapse, unrelenting drought caused the deaths of millions of Maya people and initiated a cascade of internal collapses that

On the Rise and Fall of Tuláns and Maya Segmentary States

An approach integrating ethnohistory, ethnography, and settlement pattern archeology allows a series of “ontogenetic stages” with segmentary lineage behaviors to be delineated for the Post-classic

REVISITING MAYAPAN: Mexico's last Maya capital

Archaeological excavations begun at Mayapan in 1996 require re-evaluation of this site, sometimes disparaged as representing “decadent” Postclassic Maya culture. New discoveries show that the site

Who Was Who in Ninth-Century Chichen Itza

Abstract Hieroglyphic inscriptions from Chichen Itza are examined for possible light they might shed on its ethnic and political makeup during the Terminal Classic period (a.d. 800–1000). It is