THE NEURONAL CONTROL OF LOCOMOTION IN THE EARTHWORM

@article{Gardner1976THENC,
  title={THE NEURONAL CONTROL OF LOCOMOTION IN THE EARTHWORM},
  author={C. R. Gardner},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={1976},
  volume={51}
}
  • C. Gardner
  • Published 1976
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Biological Reviews
CONTENTS 
Escape Reflexes in Earthworms and Other Annelids
TLDR
From the standpoint of defense, the escape reflex represents one of the most important components of a worm’s repertoire of locomotory behavior that, depending on the species, may also include undulating swimming or peristaltic creeping movements. Expand
Fictive locomotion induced by octopamine in the earthworm.
TLDR
It is concluded that fictive crawling motor patterns are observed at 10(-4) mol l(-1) OA, and that OA can induce rhythmic bursts in the isolated VNC of the earthworm. Expand
The brain and central control in the earthworm.
TLDR
It is suggested that the cephalic ganglia have roles in the temporal accumulation of the effects of internal as well as external provocations to activity permitting regulation of creeping rates for behavioral integration over time. Expand
The rapid tail flattening component of MGF-mediated escape behavior in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris
TLDR
In intact and dissected earthworms ( Lumbricus terrestris L.), the medial giant fiber mediates the rapid tail flattening component of escape behavior, with a difference in timing that may enable the animal to escape by anchoring its tail in its burrow before longitudinal withdrawal of anterior segments occurs. Expand
Rapid Escape Response - A Behavioral Response on Eisenia fetida
TLDR
Results suggest that an undamaged ventral nerve cord is essential for earthworms’ rapid escape responses. Expand
Recent developments in earthworm neurobiology
TLDR
Earthworm neurobiology is reviewed, with particular emphasis on developments during the past 10–15 years, and the structure and distribution of epidermal sensory cells; sensory cells with central cell bodies, sensory fields. Expand
The presence of monoamines in the nervous system ofPeripatopsis (Onychophora)
Preliminary observations of formaldehyde-induced fluorescence support the suggestion that monoamines such as noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine are transmitter agents in the centralExpand
Modulation of motor patterns by sensory feedback during earthworm locomotion
TLDR
Results indicate that sensory feedback modulates the pattern of motor activity in the earthworm during locomotion. Expand
Identification of oscillatory firing neurons associated with locomotion in the earthworm through synapse imaging
TLDR
It is concluded that FM imaging can be used to identify neurons involved in specific functions, and that OPPs are the first neurons to be associated with OA-induced locomotion in the earthworm. Expand
Design of an Underactuated Peristaltic Robot on Soft Terrain
TLDR
The designed underactuated peristaltic robot utilizes a minimum amount of electromechanical hardware that reduces the number of potential failure modes and provides the robot design with great potential for scaling to larger and smaller applications. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 220 REFERENCES
Neuro-Muscular Transmission in the Earthworm
NEURO-MUSCULAR transmission was investigated in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, by stimulating a segmental nerve with maximal shocks and recording the electrical responses from the surface ofExpand
Facilitation in the rapid response of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L.
  • M. Roberts
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1966
TLDR
Fatigue and facilitation in the earthworm is discussed in relation to similar phenomena in other invertebrates. Expand
Giant motor neurons in the earthworm
TLDR
The median and lateral giant nerve fibres which mediate startle responses in earthworms are regularly connected with two groups of giant motor neurons in each ganglion of the ventral cord, which act as specific efferent pathways of the giant fibres innervating the longitudinal muscles. Expand
Giant-Fibre Reflex of the Earthworm
THE rapid shortening of an earthworm is co-ordinated by giant fibres located in the nerve cord1,2. Though the transmission characteristics and anatomy of these giant internuncials are established,Expand
Dopamine in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris: enhancement of rhythmic contractile activity.
TLDR
The site of dopamine's activating effect on peristalsis may be within the extensive catecholamine-containing sensory system in Lumbricus terrestris, which was initiated and maintained by continuous tension. Expand
Physiological and morphological properties of motoneurones in the central nervous system of the leech
1. A number of motor cell bodies have been identified in the segmental ganglia of the ventral nerve cord of the medicinal leech. These motoneurones supply either excitatory or inhibitory innervationExpand
Coelomic pressure and electromyogram in earthworm locomotion
TLDR
Sequential muscular activation in successive segments is demonstrated, associated with a locomotory wave, and small, single potentials on the electromyogram may correspond with tonic muscular contractions. Expand
Nervous system of the earthworm, lumbricus terrestris L.
TLDR
None of the nerve trunks of the body was observed to send branches to more than one segment, which shows that they are segmental in origin and distribution. Expand
Slow Activity in the Nervous System of the Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris
TLDR
Two slow reflexes, one involving elongation, the other longitudinal contraction, are described and slow activity in the nervous system is discussed in relation to reflex activity of the earthworm and the neurone anatomy of the nerve cord and segmental nerves. Expand
The Giant Fibre Reflex of the Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris L
TLDR
The purpose of this investigation was to locate the site of fatigue in the giant fibre reflex of the earthworm and to identify the sites of failure in the sensory and motor neurone tracts. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...