author={Elizabeth Welch-Carre},
  journal={Advances in Neonatal Care},

Tables from this paper

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) was coined to encompass all the terms that describe alcohol-related defects, including FAS, to describe other effects within the spectrum.

Novel molecular targets for the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome.

The present article reviews the most relevant mechanisms of alcohol injury in developing brain and the strategies and patents that are currently available and in progress to prevent therapy for FAS.

A brief overview of fetal alcohol syndrome for health professionals.

The need for health and social care professionals to have a greater understanding and awareness of how FAS and FASD may impact on the individual, the family and the community is enforced to enable them to provide the most effective preventive and supportive care possible.

Prenatal alcohol exposure and the effects on the developing kidney and long-term adult health outcomes

It is demonstrated that prenatal ethanol exposure in both the chronic and acute settings results in a permanent reduction in nephron number, and retinoic acid, a promoter of kidney development was added to culture to determine whether any ethanol-induced alterations to kidney development could be prevented by co-culture with retinoi acid.

Associations Between Depressive and Anxious Symptoms and Prenatal Alcohol Use

Modest associations were found between both elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety at 18 weeks’ gestation and binge drinking at 32 the authors weeks” gestation and between both alcohol use and depressive and anxious symptoms during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Sensory processing and adaptive behavior deficits of children across the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder continuum.

Regardless of the diagnosis received under the FASD umbrella, functional difficulties that could not be observed using traditional measures of intelligence were found, supporting guidelines that a broad range of standardized assessments be included when screening children for FasD.

Diagnostic issues affecting the epidemiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  • M. Farag
  • Medicine
    Journal of population therapeutics and clinical pharmacology = Journal de la therapeutique des populations et de la pharamcologie clinique
  • 2014
This review exposes the clinical burden of diagnosing the range of FASD with disputing diagnostic criteria, and the profound implications of relaxed and strict diagnostic approaches on FAS prevalence reporting in the literature.

Risk Factors for Birth Defects.

This review focuses on risk factors for birth defects including alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, smoking, obesity, pregestational diabetes, maternal phenylketonuria, multiple gestation, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, family history/consanguinity, folic acid deficiency, medication exposure, and radiation exposure.

Under-reporting of foetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an analysis of hospital episode statistics

It would be expected that the North West and North East regions, known to have higher levels of alcohol harm would haveHigher levels of FASD-related conditions, however, this was not reflected in the incidence of such conditions, suggesting under-reporting.

Functioning of phonematic hearing in children with fetal alcohol syndrome

The collected research material shows phonemic hearing disorders in almost 50% of 6-year-olds with FAS (control group: 12%) and 21% of 10- year- olds with Fas ( control group: 5%) and the type of difficulty in both groups is the same.



Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders

This statement is an update of a previous statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics and reflects the current thinking about alcohol exposure in utero and the revised nosology.

Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

Many barriers exist to effective implementation of alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) prevention in the clinical setting, and designing effective office base systems so the entire burden of implementing AEP prevention activities does fall solely on the family physician is critical.

Fetal alcohol syndrome : diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment

This volume examines fundamental concepts for setting diagnostic criteria in general, reviews and updates the diagnostic criteria for FAS and related conditions, and explores current research findings and problems associated with FAS epidemiology and surveillance.

Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome. A summary.

The common methods used to study the prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of FAS in the United States are summarized and both similar and unique findings that have emerged in the literature from other countries are reviewed.

Risk Factors for Adverse Life Outcomes in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects

The odds of escaping these adverse life outcomes are increased 2- to 4-fold by receiving the diagnosis of FAS or FAE at an earlier age and by being reared in good stable environments.

Neuropsychological comparison of alcohol-exposed children with or without physical features of fetal alcohol syndrome.

The data suggest that heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to a consistent pattern of neuropsychological deficits and the degree of these deficits may be independent of the presence of physical features associated with FAS.

Alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant--United States, 2002.

Women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant who drink during pregnancy place themselves at risk for having a child with FAS or fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and should abstain from alcohol use.

Recognition of facial features of fetal alcohol syndrome in the newborn

  • J. StolerL. Holmes
  • Medicine
    American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics
  • 2004
A facial scoring system consisting of six of the features commonly seen in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is developed and it is proposed that this system may be useful in the assessment of newborn infants at high risk because of alcohol exposure during pregnancy.

Teratogenic Effects of Alcohol on Brain and Behavior

Brain imaging studies have identified structural changes in various brain regions of these children—including the basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and hippocampus—that may account for the cognitive deficits.