THE IONIC BASIS OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN NERVE AND MUSCLE

@article{Hodgkin1951THEIB,
  title={THE IONIC BASIS OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY IN NERVE AND MUSCLE},
  author={Alan Lloyd Hodgkin},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={1951},
  volume={26}
}
1 Four methods of determining the potential difference across the surface membrane of living cells are described. 2 In a wide range of excitable tissues the resting membrane potential is of the order of 50–100 mV. and the action potential of the order of 80–130 mV. 3 At the height of activity the potential difference across the membrane is reversed by 30–50 mV. 4 The potassium concentration inside most excitable cells is 20–50 times greater than that in the external medium; sodium is 3–15 times… Expand
IONIC TRANSFER IN CARDIAC MUSCLE. AN EXPLANATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY.
TLDR
Little is known of the factors which alter membrane permeability or affect the transfer rates during recovery, but it is apparent that sodium is removed from the cell after the rising phase and is replaced by potassium to restore membrane resting potential. Expand
Intracellular ion concentration and electrical activity in potassium-Depleted mammalian soleus muscle fibers
  • N. Akaike
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Pflügers Archiv
  • 2004
TLDR
The resting potentials of ‘Na-rich’ muscle fibers closely agreed with the theoretical potential expected from ionic theory when a quantitative dissociation of active cation transport with Na ions extrusion exceeding K ions uptake was eliminated due to the recovery of ’Na- rich’ fibers in Krebs solution with 10 mM K for 2 h at 37°C. Expand
Insect visceral muscle. Ionic dependance of electrical potentials in the proctodeal muscle fibres
TLDR
The amplitude and the rate of rise of the action potential were found to be dependent on sodium, and tetrodotoxin had little effect on the spontaneous action potentials, and Mn ions had a blocking effect. Expand
BEYOND MEMBRANE POTENTIALS
  • K. Cole
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1957
TLDR
The squid data constitute the initial and, to date, the only breakthrough into a completely new level of analysis and understanding of extracellular potentials, and may stand alone as a major achievement. Expand
Potassium dependence of the membrane potential of pancreatic B‐cells
TLDR
This report shows that the resting membrane potential of pancreatic B-cells is mainly low, like in other gland cells, and much higher membrane potenti~s are found with the technique of continuous recording with microelectrodes. Expand
The sodium and potassium composition of some insect skeletal muscle fibres in relation to their membrane potentials
1. 1. The intracellular potassium and sodium concentrations of skeletal muscle fibres of Locusta migratoria, Periplaneta americana and Carausius morosus bathed in blood, and the sodium concentrationExpand
The influence of potassium and chloride ions on the membrane potential of single muscle fibres
The most widely accepted theory of the restirng potential of muscle is that the electrical potential difference between the inside and outside of a muscle fibre arises from the concentrationExpand
The effect of the cardiac membrane potential on the rapid availability of the sodium‐carrying system
  • S. Weidmann
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of physiology
  • 1955
TLDR
The present experiments were undertaken in order to look for a similar effect in mammalian Purkinje fibres by means of a feedback circuit the 'resting' potential could be chosen at will; its effect was observed on certain features of the action potential which are thought to be indicative of the sodium permeability, namely the upstroke velocity and the size of the 'overshoot'. Expand
Membrane potential of squid axons: effect of internal and external ion concentration.
  • S. Ohki, O. Aono
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Japanese journal of physiology
  • 1979
Transmembrane resting potentials of squid axons were measured with variation of intracellular salt concentrations. It was found that the dependence of resting potential on the extracellular K-ionExpand
Effects of Potassium and Sodium Ions on the Resting and Action Potentials of the Giant Axon of the Cockroach
TLDR
In order to verify the validity of the sodium theory in the cockroach giant axon, the effects on the resting and action potentials of varying the sodium and potassium concentrations in the bathing fluid were examined with intracellular micro-electrodes. Expand
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