author={S. David Webb},
When the Panamanian land bridge was emplaced about 2.7 Ma, it triggered the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), a major mingling of land mammal faunas between North and South America. Four families of northern immigrants (Procyonidae, Felidae, Tayassuidae, and Camelidae) diversified at moderate rates, while four others, Canidae, Mustelidae, Cervidae, and especially Muridae, evolved explosively. As a consequence, half of living South American genera are descendants of northern immigrants… 

The Great American Biotic (Faunal) Interchange

  • T. Defler
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Topics in Geobiology
  • 2018
This is the story of the revolutionary changes to South American mammals that occurred when it became possible for mammals from North America to pass to South America. This probably began as early as

The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

  • M. Woodburne
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Mammalian Evolution
  • 2010
The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised and trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies.

Historical biogeography of the Isthmus of Panama

As a sea barrier, the isthmus induced divergent environmental change off its two coasts—creating contrasting ecosystems through differential extinction and diversification.

Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

This study investigates biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and reviews the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI, and performs a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution.

A Taxonomic and Biogeographic Review of the Fossil Tapirs from Bolivia

The geographical distribution of Pleistocene records of Tapirus in South America indicates that T. tarijensis was the only known species inhabiting the Tarija Valley during this time, and a taxonomic re-evaluation of Tap viruses is provided.

The Great American Biotic Interchange revisited: a new perspective from the stable isotope record of Argentine Pampas fossil mammals

Stable isotope data indicates that the expansion of C 4 vegetation opened up new niche opportunities, probably alleviating resource competition among endemic taxa and may have facilitated the successful settlement of immigrant groups in South America.

In the Wake of Invasion: Tracing the Historical Biogeography of the South American Cricetid Radiation (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

A temporal and spatial framework is provided to address key aspects of the historical biogeography and diversification of this diverse mammal group by using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA datasets coupled with methods of divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction and comparative phylogenetics.

Evolution of South American Mammalian Predators During the Cenozoic: Paleobiogeographic and Paleoenvironmental Contingencies

During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an “island continent,” sporadically connected with other landmasses. This feature resulted in the development of a peculiar biota in which endemic South

Increased xenarthran diversity of the Great American Biotic Interchange: a new genus and species of ground sloth (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megalonychidae) from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) of Jalisco, Mexico

Comparison and analysis of the type specimen, a mandible, shows a closer relationship to South American taxa than those from North America or the Caribbean, which suggests that during the early stages of the Great American Biotic Interchange there were two separate dispersal events of megalonychid sloths.

Upper Pleistocene deposits from the Cauca Valley Depósitos del Pleistoceno Superior en el Valle del Río Cauca

The rise of the Isthmus of Panama is one of the major biogeographical events of the Cenozoic. It is a massive natural experiment in biological migrations, as lands formerly separated—South America



Isotopic Paleoceanography of the Caribbean and East Pacific: Role of Panama Uplift in Late Neogene Time

  • L. Keigwin
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1982
Comparisons of carbon isotopic data on benthic foraminifera from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 502 and 503 suggest that modern circulation patterns in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific developed by 3 million years ago in concert with changing tectonic, climatic, and biogeographic patterns.

Geochronology of Hemphillian‐Blancan Aged Strata, Guanajuato, Mexico, and Implications for Timing of the Great American Biotic Interchange

We present new geochronologic (magnetostratigraphy, fission‐track and 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dates, biostratigraphy) data constraining the age of three separate sequences and a composite section

Biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy, late Pliocene rocks, 111 Ranch, Arizona

Fossiliferous strata exposed along the northwestern flank of Dry Mountain on the 111 Ranch, 27 km southeast of Safford, Graham County, Arizona, were dated by means of isotopic methods and the

Neotropical deer ( Cervidae ) , Part 1 . Pudus , Pudu Gray

  • Fieldiana , Zool .
  • 1982