THE EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENTAL BASIS OF WING PATTERN VARIATION IN THE BUTTERFLY BICYCLUS ANYNANA

@article{Monteiro1994THEEG,
  title={THE EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENTAL BASIS OF WING PATTERN VARIATION IN THE BUTTERFLY BICYCLUS ANYNANA},
  author={Ant{\'o}nia Monteiro and Paul M. Brakefield and Vernon French},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1994},
  volume={48}
}
We have studied interactions between developmental processes and genetic variation for the eyespot color pattern on the adult dorsal forewing of the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. Truncation selection was applied in both an upward and a downward direction to the size of a single eyespot consisting of rings with wing scales of differing color pigments. High heritabilities resulted in rapid responses to selection yielding divergent lines with very large or very small eyespots. Strong… 
Developmental and genetic mechanisms for evolutionary diversification of serial repeats: eyespot size in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.
TLDR
This work uses micromanipulations of developing wings to dissect the contribution of different components of eyespot development to quantitative differences in eyespot size on one wing surface, and reports on the phenotypic analysis of a number of mutant stocks demonstrating how single alleles can affect different eyespots in concert or independently, and thus contribute to the individualization of serially repeated traits.
BUTTERFLY EYESPOTS: THE GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLOR RINGS
The butterfly Bicyclus anynana has a series of distal eyespots on its wings. Each eyespot is composed of a white pupil, a black disc, and a gold outer ring. We applied artificial selection to the
The evolutionary genetics and developmental basis of eyespot morphology in butterfly wings
TLDR
The morphogen gradient hypothesis was tested by measuring areas of fused eyespot patterns in Bicyclus anynana, by grafting focal cells close together, and also by using a mutation (Spotty) that produces adjacent fused eyespots that indicate that, in the region between two foci, there is nearly always an extra area of cells differentiating into part of the pattern.
The genetic basis of eyespot size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: an analysis of line crosses
TLDR
The genetic basis of eyespot size in B. anynana is studied using lines selected at a single temperature for large and small eyespots, and a number of crosses derived from these lines, to estimate the minimum number of genes contributing to the difference between the two lines.
Contribution of Distal-less to quantitative variation in butterfly eyespots
TLDR
Linkage between DNA polymorphisms in the candidate gene Distal-less (Dll) and eyespot size in B. anynana is demonstrated by demonstrating linkage between genes within the implicated pathways contribute to the quantitative variation accessible to natural selection.
Butterfly wing patterns
TLDR
Research on the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, is described, including artificial selection of lines with different patterns of wing eyespots followed by grafting experiments on the lines to examine the phenotypic and genetic differences in terms of developmental mechanisms.
Concerted evolution and developmental integration in modular butterfly wing patterns
TLDR
The eyespot pattern in Bicyclus anynana butterflies provides an ideal system where morphological modularity can be dissected and different levels of genetic integration analyzed, and changes in eyespot size across all wing surfaces depend on eyespot position along the anterior–posterior axis.
Mutants highlight the modular control of butterfly eyespot patterns
TLDR
Several developmental models are proposed, based on wing compartmentalization in Drosophila, that provide the first framework for thinking about the molecular evolution of butterfly wing pattern modularity.
The genetics and development of an eyespot pattern in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: response to selection for eyespot shape.
The normally circular eyespots on the wing of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana were selected to become elliptical in two divergent lines, with antero-posterior elongation of the eyespots in one line
Butterfly wings: the evolution of development of colour patterns
The diversity in colour patterns on butterfly wings provides great potential for understanding how developmental mechanisms may be modulated in the evolution of adaptive traits. In particular, we
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The results indicate that response to selection occurred at two levels: (i) the genes affecting the size of the eyespot directly and (ii) the eyespots biochemical determination mechanism.
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Research on the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, is described, including artificial selection of lines with different patterns of wing eyespots followed by grafting experiments on the lines to examine the phenotypic and genetic differences in terms of developmental mechanisms.
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