author={Matthew F. Bonnan},
  • Matthew F. Bonnan
  • Published 12 September 2003
  • Geography, Biology, Environmental Science
Abstract Sauropods have a unique digitigrade and semi-tubular manus whose shape has been used as a synapomorphy that unites most sauropod taxa. The vertical orientation and semi-tubular arrangement of the metacarpals suggest the sauropod manus improved the mechanical ability of the forelimb to support great weight. However, the evolutionary mechanism responsible for modifying the relatively flat metacarpus of basal saurischians into a semi-tubular arrangement has remained uninvestigated… 

Articulated bone sets of manus and pedes of Camarasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria)

Skeletons of sauropods are rarely found with fore and hind feet, and until now, only one specimen of this clade has been reported with all four autopodia preserved complete and articulated. This

A new basal sauropod from the pre-Toarcian Jurassic of South Africa: evidence of niche-partitioning at the sauropodomorph–sauropod boundary?

Key changes in the dentition, axial skeleton and forelimb of this new species suggest a genuine functional distinction occurring at the sauropodiform-sauropod boundary, which may partially explain the rarity of true sauropods in the basal rocks of the Jurassic.

Forelimb orientation and locomotion of sauropod dinosaurs: insights from the ?Middle Jurassic Tafaytour tracksites (Argana Basin, Morocco)

ABSTRACT Forelimb posture in sauropod dinosaurs is still poorly understood. Although a laterally directed (semisupinated) manus is the plesiomorphic condition in sauropodomorphs, the sauropod track

Postcranial Anatomy and Phylogenetic Relationships of Mussaurus patagonicus (Dinosauria, Sauropodomorpha)

The postcranial anatomy of four specimens of basal sauropodomorphs from the Late Triassic of Patagonia, Argentina are described and identified as adult individuals of Mussaurus patagonicus, which is recovered as a non-sauropod anchisaurian and is depicted outside the ‘quadrupedal clade’.

The influence of caudofemoral musculature on the titanosaurian (Saurischia: Sauropoda) tail skeleton: morphological and phylogenetic implications

The differing position of the fourth trochanter, and therefore, the insertion of the caudofemoral muscles, among various titanosaurian taxa suggests distinctions in the locomotor function of these animals.

A new transitional sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of South Africa and the evolution of sauropod feeding and quadrupedalism

Cursorial ability appears to have been reduced and the weight bearing axis of the pes shifted to a medial, entaxonic position, falsifying the hypothesis that entaxony evolved in sauropods only after an obligate quadrupedal gait had been adopted.

A path to gigantism: Three‐dimensional study of the sauropodomorph limb long bone shape variation in the context of the emergence of the sauropod bauplan

This work aims to tackle this evolutionary episode by investigating shape variation in the six limb long bones for the first time using three‐dimensional geometric morphometrics and highlights differences in hindlimb bone allometries between the sauropods and the non‐sauropodan sauropodomorphs.

Paleobiology of Titanosaurs: Reproduction, Development, Histology, Pneumaticity, Locomotion and Neuroanatomy from the South American Fossil Record

Saltasaurines in particular show evidence of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in both axial and appendicular skeleton, providing clues about soft tissue anatomy and the structure of the respiratory system.

The osteology of Pulanesaura eocollum: implications for the inclusivity of Sauropoda (Dinosauria)

A suite of features that can be shown to unambiguously and exclusively co-occur at the base of Sauropoda sensu the latter definition are highlighted, arguing in favour of its continued use.

Redescription of the wrist and manus of ?Bothriospondylus madagascariensis: new data on carpus morphology in Sauropoda

Except for some rare exceptions, the arrangement of the carpus remains poorly understood among sauropodomorphs, mainly because of a bad preservation in the fossil record. When preserved, it is



A fourth new sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic pf the Colorado Plateau and sauropod bipedalism

The new sauropod, Cathetosaurus lewisi, is named and assigned to the Camarasauridae; it was collected from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in western Colorado in 1967 and enabled it to assume and function to an unknown degree in a bipedal posture.

The phylogenetic relationships of sauropod dinosaurs

The results suggest that there are dangers inherent in the view that ‘higher’ level sauropod phylogeny can be accurately reconstructed using only a small number of well-known taxa, and that the results of the randomization tests indicate that the data-matrix probably contains a strong phylogenetic ‘signal’.

Early Evolution and Higher-Level Phylogeny of Sauropod Dinosaurs

The cladistic analysis presented here focuses on higher-level relationships among sauropods, and identifies Neosauropoda as a new taxon that includes Haplocanthosaurus, Camarasaurus, and Titanosauriformes.

The Evolutionary History of Sauropod Dinosaurs

Forked chevrons, which have played such an important role in previous studies of sauropod phylogeny, are here considered to have evolved twice within the Sauropoda, which may reflect a correlation between chevron shape and the use of the tail as a weapon within these twosauropod families.

Dinosaurian precursors from the Middle Triassic of Argentina: Marasuchus lilloensis, gen. nov.

Several synapomorphies unite Marasuchus and dinosaurs (as Dinosauriformes) to the exclusion of the contemporary dinosauromorph Lagerpeton and pterosaurs.

The pectoral girdle and forelimb of the basal theropod Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis

ABSTRACT New specimens of Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis shed light on the structure and function of the pectoral girdle and forelimb in early theropod dinosaurs. As in tetanurian theropods, the

Dinosaurian precursors from the Middle Triassic of Argentina: Lagerpeton chanarensis

There is no evidence that Lagerpeton and other small-bodied dinosauromorphs in the Los Chanares fauna, namely “Lagosuchus” lilloensis, comprise a monophyletic group.

Titanosaurs and the origin of wide-gauge trackways; a biomechanical and systematic perspective on sauropod locomotion

It is argued that skeletal morphology is respon- sible for gauge differences and integrate data from locomotor biomechanics and systematics with the track record to predict the hindlimb morphology of wide-gauge trackmakers, implying that titanosaurs were unique among sauropods in having a more varied repertoire of locomotor habits.

Theoretical Aspects of Cursorial Adaptations in Dinosaurs

  • W. Coombs
  • Biology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1978
A theoretical review of the physical constraints on cursorial animals provides a list of the morphological correlates of superior running ability, with emphasis on osteological features, and a system of four levels of running ability (graviportal, medip Mortal, subcursorial, cursorial), is possible to evaluate the running potential of dinosaurs.

Evolution of Vertebrate Limbs: Robust Morphology and Flexible Development

The role of several homeobox-containing genes in the control of growth and pattern formation during limb development and regeneration is investigated, and it is found that although there can be considerable variation in the ways in which expression of these genes is regulated in tune and space, their expression patterns relative to morphological landmarks is conserved.