THE EVOLUTION AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER NEMERTEANS

@article{Moore1985THEEA,
  title={THE EVOLUTION AND COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF TERRESTRIAL AND FRESHWATER NEMERTEANS},
  author={J. Moore and R. Gibson},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={1985},
  volume={60}
}
(1) Parallel evolution from separate marine ancestors has given rise to two groups of genera of terrestrial nemerteans, representative of at least two different family stocks. They have colonized land by the direct route, moving up the shore on widely separated oceanic islands. The relationships between the known terrestrial and semi‐terrestrial nemerteans, comprising seven genera and 15 species, are defined and their geographic distribution is discussed. 
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References

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TLDR
The evolutionary relationship between different species is established on secure morphological grounds, with particular reference to the genus Pantinonemertes which comprises marine, semi-terrestrial and fully terrestrial species. Expand
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Examination of how terrestrial animals have evolved from their aquatic ancestors and adapted to life on land. Combines evidence from fossil history with that from the ecology and physiology ofExpand
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A full description and comparison of the two land nemertines already reported from New Zealand, Geonemertes novaezealandiae and G. pantini. is followed by the description of G. allisonae sp. nov.,Expand
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TLDR
A new freshwater hoplonemertean from the Selwyn River, New Zealand, is described and possesses a distinctive combination of characters which establish it as a new genus and species. Expand
SEXUAL PHASES IN TERRESTRIAL NEMERTEANS
1. A series of 21 specimens of a species of terrestrial nemertean, Geonemertes palaensis, from tropical Pacific islands includes successive stages in the development of the gonads which show thatExpand
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TLDR
A re‐examination of all the known species of Geonemertes has shown that two major groups can be distinguished on the basis of morphological characters, and a key to the terrestrial, brackish‐water and marine nemertean species described in the present paper is provided. Expand
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TLDR
The morphology of this tiemertean relates it with the family Prosorhochmidae and the occurrence of this form, the second freshwater prosorHochmid genus from the Antipodes, strongly supports an earlier hypothesis on the evolution of freshwater hoplonemerteans. Expand
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TLDR
An evaluation of the systematic significance of several anatomical characters leads to the suggestion that the primitive heteronemertean organization included a proboscis with three muscle layers, a foregut with neither splanchnic muscles nor subepithelial glands, and a blood system not developed into a vascular plexus around the foreGut. Expand
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