author={S. M. Khairul Alam and Franco D. Albareti and Carlos Allende Prieto and Friedrich Anders and Scott F. Anderson and Brett H. Andrews and Eric Armengaud and 'Eric Aubourg and Stephen Bailey and Julian E. Bautista and Rachael L. Beaton and Timothy C. Beers and Chad F. Bender Andreas A. Berlind and Florian Beutler and Vaishali Bhardwaj and Jonathan C Bird and Dmitry Bizyaev and Cullen H. Blake and Michael R. Blanton and Michael Blomqvist and John J. Bochanski and Adam S. Bolton and Jo Bovy and Alaina C. Shelden Bradley and William N. Brandt and Doroth{\'e}e Brauer and Jonathan Brinkmann and Peter. J. Brown and Joel R. Brownstein and Angela Burden and Etienne Burtin and Nicolas Busca and Zheng Cai and Diego Capozzi and Aurelio Carnero Rosell and Ricardo Carrera and Yen-Chi Chen and Cristina Chiappini and S. Drew Chojnowski and Chia-Hsun Chuang and Nicolas Clerc and Johan Comparat and Kevin R. Covey and Rupert Croft and Antonio J. Cuesta and Katia Cunha and Luiz Nicolaci da Costa and Nicola da Rio and James. R. A. Davenport and Kyle S. Dawson and Nathan M. De Lee and Timoth'ee Delubac and Rohit Deshpande and Let'icia Dutra-Ferreira and Tom Dwelly and Anne Ealet and Garrett L. Ebelke and Edward M. Edmondson and Daniel J. Eisenstein and St'ephanie Escoffier and Massimiliano Esposito and Xiaohui Fan and Emma Fern'andez-Alvar and Diane K. Feuillet and N. Filiz Ak and Hayley Finley and Alexis Finoguenov and Kevin M. Flaherty and Scott W. Fleming and Andreu Font-Ribera and Jonathan B. Foster and Peter M. Frinchaboy and Jessica Galbraith-Frew and Domingo An'ibal Garc'ia-Hern'andez and Ana Elia Garc'ia P'erez and Patrick Gaulme and Jian Ge and Ricardo T. G'enova-Santos and Luan Ghezzi and Bruce A. Gillespie and L{\'e}o Girardi and Daniel Goddard and Satya Gontcho A. Gontcho and Jonay I. Gonz'alez Hern'andez and Eva K. Grebel and Jan Niklas Grieb and Nolan Grieves and James E. Gunn and Hong Guo and Paul Harding and Sten Hasselquist and Suzanne L. Hawley and Michael R. Hayden and Fred R. Hearty and Shirley Ho and David W. Hogg and Kelly Holley-Bockelmann and Jon A. Holtzman and Klaus Honscheid and Joseph Huehnerhoff and Linhua Jiang and Jennifer A. Johnson and Karen Kinemuchi and David Kirkby and Francisco-Shu Kitaura and Mark A. Klaene and Jean-Paul Kneib and Xavier Koenig and Charles R. Lam Ting-Wen Lan and Dustin Lang and Pierre Laurent and Jean-Marc Le Goff and Alexie Leauthaud and Khee Gan Lee and Young Sun Lee and Timothy C. Licquia and Jian Liu and Daniel C. Long and Mart'in L'opez-Corredoira and Diego Lorenzo-Oliveira and Sara Lucatello and Britt Fisher Lundgren and Robert H. Lupton and Claude E. Mack and Suvrath Mahadevan and Marcio A. G. Maia and Steven R. Majewski and Elena Malanushenko and Viktor Malanushenko and Arturo Manchado and Marc Manera and Qingqing Mao and Claudia Maraston and R. Marchwinski and Daniel Margala and Sarah L. Martell and Marie Martig and Karen L. Masters and Cameron McBride and Peregrine M. McGehee and Ian D. McGreer and Richard G. McMahon and Brice M'enard and M. L. Menzel and Andrea Merloni and Sz. M'esz'aros and Adam A. Miller and Jordi Miralda-Escud'e Hironao Miyatake and Antonio D Montero-Dorta and Surhud More and Xan Morice-Atkinson and Heather L. Morrison and Demitri Muna and Adam D. Myers and Jeffrey A. Newman and Mark C. Neyrinck and Duy Cuong Nguyen and Robert C. Nichol and David L. Nidever and Pasquier Noterdaeme and Sebasti{\'a}n E. Nuza and Julia E. O’Connell and Robert W. O’Connell and Ross O’Connell and R. L. C. Ogando and Matthew D. Olmstead and Audrey E. Oravetz and Daniel J. Oravetz and Keisuke Osumi and Russell E. Owen and Deborah Padgett and Nikhil Padmanabhan and Martin A. Paegert and Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille and Kaike Pan and John K. Parejko and Changbom Park and Isabelle P{\^a}ris and Petchara Pattarakijwanich and Marcos Pellejero-Ib{\'a}{\~n}ez and Joshua A. Pepper and Will J Percival and Ismael P'erez-Fournon and Ignasi P'erez-Rafols and Patrick Petitjean and Matthew M. Pieri and Marc H. Pinsonneault and Gustavo F. Porto de Mello and Francisco Prada and Abhishek Prakash and Adrian. M. Price-Whelan and M. Jordan Raddick and Mubdi Rahman and Beth A. Reid and James Rich and Hans–Walter Rix and Annie C. Robin and Constance M. Rockosi and Tha{\'i}se S. Rodrigues and Sergio Rodr'iguez-Rottes and Natalie A. Roe and Ashley J. Ross and Nicholas P. Ross and Graziano Rossi and John J. Ruan and Jos'e Alberto Rubino-Mart'in and Eli S. Rykoff and Salvador Salazar-Albornoz and Mara Salvato and Lado Samushia and Ariel G. S'anchez and Bas{\'i}lio Xavier Santiago and Conor Sayres and Ricardo P. Schiavon and David J. Schlegel and Sarah J. Schmidt and Donald P. Schneider and Mathias Schultheis and Axel Schwope and Claudia G. Sc'occola and Kristen Sellgren and H. J. Seo and Neville Shane and Yue Shen and Matthew D. Shetrone and Yiping Shu and Thirupathi Sivarani and Michael F. Skrutskie and Anvze Slosar and Verne V. Smith and Flavia Sobreira and Keivan G. Stassun and Matthias Steinmetz and Michael A. Strauss and A. Streblyanska and Mollye E. C. Swanson and Jonathan C. Tan and Jamie Tayar and Ryan C. Terrien and Aniruddha R. Thakar and Daniel Thomas and Benjamin A. Thompson and Jeremy L. Tinker and Rita Tojeiro and Nicholas W. Troup and Mariana Vargas-Maga{\~n}a and Jose Alberto V{\'a}zquez and Licia Verde and Matteo Viel and Nicole Paula Vogt and David A. Wake and Ji Wang and Benjamin Alan Weaver and David H. Weinberg and Benjamin J. Weiner and Martin White and John C. Wilson and John P. Wisniewski and W. Michael Wood-Vasey and Ch. Y{\'e}che and Donald G. York and Nadia L. Zakamska and Olga Zamora and Gail Zasowski and Idit Zehavi and Gong-Bo Zhao and Zheng Zheng and Xu Zhou and Zhi-min Zhou and Guangtun Ben Zhu and H. Bruce and A. J. Benson Institute for Computational Cosmology and Dep. of Physics and Carnegie Mellon University and 5000 Forbes Ave and Pittsburgh and PA 15213 and Usa and Instituto de F'isica Te'orica and Universidad Aut'onoma de Madrid and Cantoblanco and E-28040 Madrid and Spain. and Instituto de Astrof'isica de Canarias and CV'ia L'actea and sn. and E-38200 and La Laguna and Tenerife and Departamento de Astrof'isica and Universidad de la Laguna and E-38206 and Leibniz-Institut fur Astrophysik Potsdam and 16 AnderSternwarte and D 14476 Potsdam and H Germany and Department of Physics Astronomy and University of Washington and Box 351580 and Seattle and WA 98195 and Ohio State University and 140 West 18th Avenue and Columbus and OH 43210 and Pitt Pacc and Astronomy and University of Pittsburgh and 3941 O'Hara Street and PA 15260 and Cea and Centre d'Etudes de Saclay and IrfuSPP and F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette and France. and Apc and U. Paris Diderot and CNRSIN2p3 and CEAIrfu and Observatoire de Paris and Sorbonne Paris Cit'e and France GEPI-Observatoire de Paris and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and One Cyclotron Road and Berkeley and CA 94720 and University of Virginia and P. O. Box 400325 and Charlottesville and VA 22904-4325 and Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and 813 Santa Barbara Street and Pasadena and CA 91101 and Jina Center for the Evolution of the Elements and University of Notre Dame and Notre Dame and IN 47907 Usa and Astrophysics and 525 Davey Laboratory and The Ohio State University and University Park and PA 16802 and Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds and Pennsylvania State University and Vanderbilt University and VU Station 1807 and Nashville and TN 37235 and Apache Point Observatory and 59 P.O.Box and Sunspot and NM 88349 and Msc 4500 and New Mexico State University and P. O. 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Sloan Fellow and Elte Gothard Astrophysical Observatory and H-9704 Szombathely and Szent Imre herceg st. 112 and Hungary. and Jet Propulsion Laboratory and CA 91109 and Hubble Fellow and Instituci'o Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanccats and Barcelona E-08010 and University of Wyoming and Laramie and WY 82071 and Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and University of Toronto and Toronto and on and M5S 3H4 and Canada. and Dept. of Physics Astronomy and University of Michigan and Ann Arbor and Mi and 48104 and Department of Physical Chemistry and Physics and King’s College and Wilkes-Barre and PA 18711 and NasaGsfc and Code 665 and Greenbelt and MC 20770 and 260 Whitney Ave and Korea Korea Institute for Advanced Study and 85 Hoegiro and Dongdaemun-gu and Seoul 130-722 and Republic of Korea and Osservatorio astronomico di Trieste and 11 ViaG.B.Tiepolo and Inaf Trieste and Lehigh University and 16 Memorial Drive East and Bethlehem and PA 18015 and Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia and Facultat de F'isica and Universitat Aut'onoma de Barcelona and E-08028 Barcelona and Amidex and Aix Marseille Universit'e and Cnrs and Lam Umr 7326 and Campus of International Excellence Uamcsic and Inst. de Astrof'isica de Andaluc'ia and Glorieta de la Astronom'ia and E-18080 Granada and Columbia University and NY 10027 and Universit'e de Franche-Comt'e and Institut Utinam and Umr Cnrs 6213 and Osu Theta and Besanccon and F-25010 and Santa Cruz and 1156 High Street and CA 95064 and Dipartimento di Astronomia and Universit̀a di Padova and 2 Vicolodell'Osservatorio and Italy. and Drexel University and 3141 Chestnut Street and Space Science and Sejong University and Seoul. and 143-747 and J Korea and Slac National Accelerator Laboratory and Menlo Park and CA 94025 and Universitatssternwarte Munchen and 1 Scheinerstrasse and Detail Munich and Cluster of Excellence and 2 Boltzmannstrasse and D-85748 Garching and Kansas State University and 116 Cardwell Hall and Manhattan and KS 66506 and National Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory and Ilia State University and 2A Kazbegi Ave. and Georgia Tbilisi and Georgia and Instituto de F'isica and Ufrgs and Caixa Postal 15051 and Porto Alegre and RS - 91501-970 and Gemini Observatory and 660 N. A'ohoku Place and Hilo and HI 96720 and Astrophysics Research Institute and Liverpool John Moores University and IC2 and Liverpool Science Park and 146 Brownlow Hill and Liverpool L3 5RF and Universit'e de Nice Sophia-antipolis and Observatoire de la C{\^o}te d'Azur and Laboratoire Lagrange and BP 4229 and 4 F-06304NiceCedex and Ohio State University and 251B Clippinger Labs and Athens and OH 45701 and University of Texas Austin and Hobby-Eberly Telescope and 32 Fowlkes Rd and McDonald Observatory and TX 79734-3005 and Indian Institute of Astrophysics and II Block and Koramangala and Bangalore 560 034 and India. and Brookhaven National Laboratory and Bldg 510 and Upton and NY 11973 and National Optical Astronomy Observatory and 950 North Cherry Avenue and Az and 85719 and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and P. O. Box 500 and Batavia and IL 60510 and Fisk University and 1000 17th Avenue North and TN 37208 and Corresponding authors. and The Penn State Astrobiology Research Center and SepNet and South East Physics Network and University of St. Andrews and Stephen K. Andrews and Fife and KY16 9SS and Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics and University of Oslo and 0315 Oslo and Norway. and INFNNational Institute for Nuclear Physics and 2 ViaValerio and Inaf Trieste and Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and University of Oklahoma and Norman and OK 73019 and The Enrico Fermi Institute and University of Chicago and 5640 South Ellis Avenue and Chicago. and IL 60637 and National Astronomical Observatories and Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing and 100012 and Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series},
The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired… 

The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the Second Phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall

The Seventeenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: Complete Release of MaNGA, MaStar, and APOGEE-2 Data

This paper documents the seventeenth data release (DR17) from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys; the fifth and final release from the fourth phase (SDSS-IV). DR17 contains the complete release of the

The 16th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: First Release from the APOGEE-2 Southern Survey and Full Release of eBOSS Spectra

This paper documents the 16th data release (DR16) from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys (SDSS), the fourth and penultimate from the fourth phase (SDSS-IV). This is the first release of data from the

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog: Twelfth data release

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The Fifteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: First Release of MaNGA-derived Quantities, Data Visualization Tools, and Stellar Library

Twenty years have passed since first light for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Here, we release data taken by the fourth phase of SDSS (SDSS-IV) across its first three years of operation (2014

The 13th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-IV Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) began observations in 2014 July. It pursues three core programs: the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog: Sixteenth Data Release

We present the final Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) quasar catalog from Data Release 16 of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS). This catalog comprises the largest


The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, explores the stellar populations of the Milky Way using the Sloan 2.5-m telescope linked


We investigated the optical/ultraviolet (UV) color variations for a sample of 2169 quasars based on multi-epoch spectroscopy in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases seven (DR7) and nine (DR9).

New H-band Stellar Spectral Libraries for the SDSS-III/APOGEE survey

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has obtained high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500), high signal-to-noise ratio ( > 100 ?> ) spectra



The Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

This paper describes the Fifth Data Release (DR5) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). DR5 includes all survey quality data taken through 2005 June and represents the completion of the SDSS-I


The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes

The Second Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has validated and made publicly available its Second Data Release. This data release consists of 3324 deg2 of five-band (ugriz) imaging data with photometry for


A series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions are described, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.

The Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

This paper describes the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including all survey-quality data taken through 2004 June. The data release includes five-band photometric data

The First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has validated and made publicly available its First Data Release. This consists of 2099 deg2 of five-band (u, g, r, i, z) imaging data, 186,240 spectra of

The Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

This paper describes the Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With this data release, the imaging of the northern Galactic cap is now complete. The survey contains images and

Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Early Data Release

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is an imaging and spectroscopic survey that will eventually cover approximately one-quarter of the celestial sphere and collect spectra of ≈106 galaxies, 100,000


We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS).


The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes