THE COVARIANCE STRUCTURE OF LIFE‐HISTORY CHARACTERS IN DAPHNIA PULEX

@article{Spitze1991THECS,
  title={THE COVARIANCE STRUCTURE OF LIFE‐HISTORY CHARACTERS IN DAPHNIA PULEX},
  author={Ken Spitze and John Burnson and Michael Lynch},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1991},
  volume={45}
}
The genetic covariance structure for life‐history characters in two populations of cyclically parthenogenetic Daphnia pulex indicates considerable positive correlation among important fitness components, apparently at odds with the expectation if antagonistic pleiotropy is the dominant cause of the maintanence of genetic variation. Although there is no genetic correlation between offspring size and offspring number, present growth and present reproduction are both strongly positively correlated… 
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  • 1993
TLDR
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  • 2005
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The results of a life‐table experiment designed to measure the broad‐sense heritabilities of life‐history traits and their genetic correlations in 19 different clones of the aphid Myzus persicae from Victoria, Australia revealed absolutely no evidence for life‐ history trade‐offs.
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Large variations and covariations of the phenotypic traits, irrespective of the genetic distance among the genotypes, support the view that the invasive success of D. pulex JPN1 was promoted by a genetic architecture that allowed for large Phenotypic variations with a limited number of functionally important mutations without recombination.
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TLDR
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Results indicate that the food quality environment had the most impact on life-history traits, while genetic contributions to traits were higher at the species- level than clonal-level, and higher trait variation and species-level responses to P-limitation were more evident in reproductive traits.
Unexpected Nongenetic Individual Heterogeneity and Trait Covariance in Daphnia and Its Consequences for Ecological and Evolutionary Dynamics
TLDR
This work experimentally studies the individual heterogeneity that emerges from both genetic and nongenetic sources in a species of freshwater zooplankton across a large gradient of food quality and finds that increasing nongnetic variation slows evolution independent of the correlation in heritable life-history traits but that the impact on ecological dynamics depends on both nonganetic and genetic covariance.
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