author={Richard D Mccullough},
  journal={Advanced Materials},
In the late 1970s, conjugated polymers were proclaimed as futuristic new materials that would lead to the next generation of electronic and optical devices. It now appears with the discoveries of, for example, polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic transistors that new technologies are imminent. Polythiophenes are an important representative class of conjugated polymers that form some of the most environmentally and thermally stable materials that can be used as electrical conductors… 
Polythiophene: From Fundamental Perspectives to Applications
The field of organic electronics has been heavily impacted by the discovery and development of π-conjugated conducting polymers. These polymers show great potential for integration into future
Aligned conjugated polymers standing upright.
The standard procedures to create large-area conjugatedpolymer-array patterns generally involve sequential polymer deposition, photolithography, and a subsequent etching step to remove dissolved polymers by appropriate solvents, but the ultraviolet light, typically used in the process of photolithographic patterning, may cause degradation of the conjugate polymers.
Light‐Emitting Polythiophenes
Polythiophenes are one of the most important classes of conjugated polymers, with a wide range of applications, such as conducting films, electrochromics, and field‐effect transistors, which have
Semiconducting Polymers: Poly(thiophenes)
Owing to the excellent optoelectronic properties and ease of synthesis, poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs) have been extensively studied as one of the best conjugated semiconducting polymeric materials
Fabrication of organic electrochemiluminescence devices with π-conjugated polymer materials
This study focuses on a liquid type light-emitting device with simple structure, an organic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) device. To realize long luminescence, polymer ECL devices using π-conjugated
Polymers for electronics and spintronics.
This critical review is devoted to semiconducting and high spin polymers which are of great scientific interest in view of further development of the organic electronics and the emerging organic
Polymer Nanocomposites for Electro-Optics: Perspectives on Processing Technologies, Material Characterization, and Future Application
This review concentrates on semiconductors and carbon nanotubes as the inorganic component of organic–inorganic nanomaterials. One of the cornerstones of the current push towards future improvements
Recent Advancements in Polythiophene-Based Materials and their Biomedical, Geno Sensor and DNA Detection
The unique properties of intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) in biomedical engineering fields are summarized and some of the novel combinations are covered in this review.
Controlled polymerizations for the synthesis of semiconducting conjugated polymers
Conjugated polymers have been under active development since the 1970s as the active material in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), photovoltaic devices and the emissive layer in


Handbook of conducting polymers
Volume 1: Conjugated Polymers: Theory, Synthesis, Properties, and Characterization PART 1: THEORY OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS On the Transport, Optical, and Self-Assembly Properties of -Conjugated
Electronic properties of conjugated polymers
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