Mutations in the CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) genes are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS1 and ALS10, respectively. In addition, TDP-43 is a major component protein of the ubiquitinated aggregates observed in sporadic ALS (SALS) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these ALS groups partly have a shared pathogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that mutant SOD1, but not wild-type SOD1, interacts with TDP-43 by co-immunoprecipitation assays using cultured cells and G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice. The region responsible for this interaction within SOD1 is the dimer interface, namely, the N- and C-terminal regions. Deletion mutants of TDP-43 with or without nuclear localization sequence interacted with mutant SOD1. Cell fractionation assays using cultured cells showed that mutant SOD1 was localized in the cytosolic fraction but not in the nuclear fraction. TDP-43 was detected both in the nuclear and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that mutant SOD1 interacts with TDP-43 in the cytoplasm. Mutant SOD1 overexpression led to an increased amount of mutant SOD1 and, to some extent, its interacting proteins including TDP-43 in the detergent-insoluble fraction. These results indicate that mutant SOD1 could affect the solubility/insolubility of its interacting proteins including TDP-43 through physical interactions. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of links among SALS, ALS1 and ALS10.