T2Rs Function as Bitter Taste Receptors

@article{Chandrashekar2000T2RsFA,
  title={T2Rs Function as Bitter Taste Receptors},
  author={Jayaram Chandrashekar and Ken L. Mueller and Mark A. Hoon and Elliot Adler and Luxin Feng and Wei Guo and Charles S. Zuker and Nicholas J. P. Ryba},
  journal={Cell},
  year={2000},
  volume={100},
  pages={703-711}
}
Bitter taste perception provides animals with critical protection against ingestion of poisonous compounds. In the accompanying paper, we report the characterization of a large family of putative mammalian taste receptors (T2Rs). Here we use a heterologous expression system to show that specific T2Rs function as bitter taste receptors. A mouse T2R (mT2R-5) responds to the bitter tastant cycloheximide, and a human and a mouse receptor (hT2R-4 and mT2R-8) responded to denatonium and 6-n-propyl-2… Expand
The human taste receptor hTAS2R14 responds to a variety of different bitter compounds.
The recent advances in the functional expression of TAS2Rs in heterologous systems resulted in the identification of bitter tastants that specifically activate receptors of this family. All bitterExpand
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TLDR
The results represent the first report addressing the molecular basis of cholesterol sensitivity in the function of taste receptors and demonstrate that Lys117, an important CRAC residue, is crucial in the reported cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4. Expand
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Probenecid is identified as a pharmacological tool for understanding the cell biology of bitter taste and as a lead for the development of broad specificity bitter blockers to improve nutrition and medical compliance. Expand
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Bitter taste prevents mammals from ingesting food potentially contaminated with bitter-tasting toxins, which are frequent and structurally diverse. It is mediated by a family of heptahelical GExpand
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TLDR
Different G-protein selectivities among the T2Rs with respect to both G(alphai) subunits and G(betagamma) dimers are observed, suggesting that bitter taste is transduced by multiple G-proteins that may differ among theT2Rs. Expand
Functional bitter taste receptors are expressed in brain cells.
TLDR
It is shown that T2Rs are expressed in multiple regions of the rat brain and functional assays showed an increase in intracellular calcium levels after the application of exogenous ligands for T2R4, denatonium benzoate and quinine to these cultured cells, suggesting that endogenous T1R4 expressed in these cells is functional. Expand
The receptors and coding logic for bitter taste
TLDR
It is demonstrated, using a combination of genetic, behavioural and physiological studies, that T2R receptors are necessary and sufficient for the detection and perception of bitter compounds, and that differences in T2Rs between species can determine the selectivity of bitter taste responses. Expand
Functional expression of mammalian bitter taste receptors in Caenorhabditis elegans.
TLDR
Results indicate that C. elegans is a suitable heterologous expression system to express functional T2Rs providing a tool to efficiently search for specific taste receptor ligands and to extend the understanding of the molecular basis of gustation. Expand
The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to β-glucopyranosides
TLDR
It is reported that a human member of this family, TAS2R16, is present in taste receptor cells on the tongue and is activated by bitter β-glucopyranosides, which links the recognition of a specific chemical structure to the perception of bitter taste. Expand
Bitter taste receptor T2R1 activities were compatible with behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens.
TLDR
The results suggest that the cT2R1 activities induced by these agonists are linked to behavioral sensitivity to bitterness in chickens. Expand
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