PD-L1 and PD-1 expression are correlated with distinctive clinicopathological features in papillary thyroid carcinoma
Peripheral T lymphocyte subsets were analysed with monoclonal antibodies, by highly standardized fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis instead of manual counting by the indirect immunofluorescence method, in autoimmune thyroid diseases and subacute thyroiditis. Total lymphocyte counts were increased in patients with thyrotoxic Graves' disease and subacute thyroiditis. The percentage of total T (Leu 1) cells was significantly lower in patients with thyrotoxic Graves' disease and Hashimoto's disease with destructive thyrotoxicosis than in normal subjects. No significant changes were observed in the percentages of suppressor-cytotoxic T (Leu 2a) cells or helper-inducer T (Leu 3a) cells or in the Leu 3a-Leu 2a ratio in different groups of patients. There were no correlations between the percentages of E rosette-forming cells and Leu 1 cells and between the percentages of T gamma cells and Leu 2a cells in normal subjects and patients. The peak position of fluorescence intensity of Leu 2a cells showed a significant sex difference even in normal controls. The most important finding was a significant decrease in the peak position of Leu 2a cells in patients with thyrotoxic Graves' disease and with hypothyroid or thyrotoxic Hashimoto's disease. These findings indicate the significant association of qualitative, but not quantitative, abnormality of suppressor-cytotoxic T (Leu 2a) cells with thyroid dysfunction in autoimmune thyroid diseases.