Comparison of T cell receptor alpha and beta-chain genes in murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II-restricted T cell clones and hybridomas recognizing different antigens indicates that no simple correlation exists between the observed antigen/MHC specificity and the expression of certain alpha and beta-chain heterodimers. We have attempted to establish a possible correlation by analyzing T cell receptor beta chain gene rearrangements and V beta gene usage in five T cell hybridomas with identical antigen/MHC specificity and another hybridoma recognizing a different antigenic determinant in association with the same restriction molecule. We report here that in each of the five clones a uniquely rearranged beta chain gene is expressed in combination with at least two different V beta gene segments. The presence of the differently rearranged T cell receptor beta chain genes correlated with the finding of distinct fine specificity pattern of antigen recognition in each of the hybridomas. Interestingly, two hybridomas specific for different epitopes showed identical beta chain D-J rearrangements indicating that the differences might be encoded by the alpha chain gene or/and the V beta gene element.