Liver tissue from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related end-stage disease contains T-cell infiltrates. The goal of this study is to determine whether CD4 T-cell clones established in vitro using an antigen-independent technique from explanted liver tissue (n = 3) are representative of dominant clones present in vivo. T-cell receptor (TCR) use by intrahepatic CD4 T cells was assessed by spectratype analysis. Clones were established from single CD4 T cells by culturing in vitro with anti-CD3 and interleukin-2 (n > 25 per patient). TCR genes expressed by each clone were identified by sequencing. When identical clones were isolated, the original spectratype was analyzed further to determine whether the clone was a dominant T-cell expansion in vivo. Evidence for clonal expansions was found in all patients by spectratyping. T cells expressing the same TCRBV genes used for spectratyping were cloned in vitro. Duplicate clones expressing the same TCR genes were observed in 2 patients. Confirmation that clones established in vitro matched those present in vivo was obtained for 2 clones. Many dominant clones identified by spectratyping did not proliferate in vitro. Although spectratyping suggested the widespread accumulation of clonal expansions in HCV-related end-stage liver disease, clones established in vitro using anti-CD3 were poorly representative of dominant clones present in vivo. Although cloning with anti-CD3 has the advantage of generating T-cell clones not biased a priori toward a specific antigen, modified cloning strategies will need to be developed to expand those clones that appear dominant in end-stage organs.