The fungal T-2 toxin alters the activation of primary macrophages induced by TLR-agonists resulting in a decrease of the inflammatory response in the pig
The aim of this work was to study the in vitro effect of T-2 toxin on human monocyte differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells. Cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin on monocytes, on monocytes in differentiation process into macrophages or dendritic cells, and on immature dendritic cells and macrophages was evaluated to determine IC50. Monocytes are more sensitive to T-2 toxin than to differentiate cells. IC50 were equal to 0.11 nM for monocyte, to 45 and 30 nM for monocyte during differentiation process for 24 and 48 h of incubation, respectively, to 38 and 20 nM for immature dendritic cells after 24 and 48 h of incubation, and to 22 and 20 nM for macrophages after 24 and 48 h of incubation. T-2 toxin effects on monocyte differentiation process into macrophages have been explored: according to phenotypic expressions (CD71, CD14, CD11a, CD80, CD86, HLA-DR and CD64), endocytic capacity, phagocytosis, burst respiratory activity and TNF-alpha secretion. In the presence of 10 nM of T-2 toxin (no cytotoxic concentration), CD71 expression is downregulated compared to control. Endocytosis and phagocytosis capacities are less effective as burst respiratory activity and TNF-alpha secretion. Monocyte differentiation process into dendritic cells in the presence of 10 nM T-2 toxin is also markedly disturbed. Expression of CD1a (specific dendritic cells marker) is downregulated while that of CD14 (specific monocyte marker) is upregulated. CD11a, CD80, CD86, HLA-DR and CD64 expressions did not change. These results show that T-2 toxin disturbs human monocytes differentiation process into macrophages and dendritic cells. These results could significantly contribute to immunosuppressive properties of this alimentary toxin.