T-1 pedicle subtraction osteotomy for the treatment of rigid cervical kyphotic deformity: report of 4 cases.


Cervical kyphotic deformity represents a difficult to treat pathology often arising from multiple factors including, but not limited to, traumatic injuries, degenerative changes, and ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, treatment of these deformities becomes increasingly difficult with any preexisting instrumentation. Currently, several options exist to… (More)
DOI: 10.3171/2016.8.SPINE121065


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