Systemism : the alternative to individualism and holism

@inproceedings{Bunge2000SystemismT,
  title={Systemism : the alternative to individualism and holism},
  author={Mario Bunge},
  year={2000}
}
Three radical worldviews and research approaches are salient in social studies: individualism, holism, and systemism. Individualism focuses on the composition of social systems, whereas holism focuses on their structure. Neither of them is adequate, one because all individuals are interrelated and two because there are no relations without relata. The only cogent and viable alternative is systemism, according to which everything is either a system or a component of a system, and every system… CONTINUE READING

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