The present study was undertaken to establish whether oxytocin (OT) is able to modify the NPY response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in man. At 8:00 AM of 2 different days at least 1 week apart, 10 normal men were tested with insulin (0.15 IU/kg) and with the administration of OT (infused from time -15-60 min, at a constant rate of 2 mIU/ml) or placebo. Plasma NPY concentrations rose significantly during insulin tolerance test (ITT). Oxytocin treatment significantly reduced the NPY response to hypoglycemia. The finding demonstrates for the first time in humans that the systemic administration of OT exerts an inhibitory effect on the NPY rise caused by insulin-induced hypoglycemia.