Systemic manifestations of COPD.

  title={Systemic manifestations of COPD.},
  author={Yvonne Nussbaumer-Ochsner and Klaus Friedrich Rabe},
  volume={139 1},
COPD is characterized by a poorly reversible airflow limitation resulting from chronic inflammation, mainly due to tobacco exposure. Over the past few years, the understanding of COPD has evolved from it being a disease affecting the lungs to it being a complex, heterogeneous, and generalized disorder in an aging population. Extrapulmonary comorbidities significantly complicate the management and influence the prognosis of patients with COPD. Although certain comorbidities like cardiovascular… CONTINUE READING

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