Systemic manifestations and comorbidities of COPD

@article{Barnes2009SystemicMA,
  title={Systemic manifestations and comorbidities of COPD},
  author={Peter John Barnes and Bartolom{\'e} R. Celli},
  journal={European Respiratory Journal},
  year={2009},
  volume={33},
  pages={1165 - 1185}
}
Increasing evidence indicates that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease involving more than airflow obstruction. Airflow obstruction has profound effects on cardiac function and gas exchange with systemic consequences. In addition, as COPD results from inflammation and/or alterations in repair mechanisms, the “spill-over” of inflammatory mediators into the circulation may result in important systemic manifestations of the disease, such as skeletal muscle wasting and… 
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TLDR
The concepts of systemic inflammation in COPD and current evidence for treatment of its related comorbidities are explored and it is expected that successful anti-inflammatory therapy in one organ may also influence others.
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Preclinical murine models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
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TLDR
Research should elucidate the complex relationship between obstructive lung disease, coexisting conditions, systemic inflammation accompanying these different conditions, and the causative role of systemic inflammation for comorbidities in COPD and asthma.
[Comorbidities of COPD].
Comorbidities of COPD
TLDR
Comorbidities make the management of COPD difficult and need to be evaluated and treated adequately, leading to increased hospitalisations and healthcare costs.
Pulmonary comorbidities associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
TLDR
All patients with COPD should be carefully evaluated to identify pulmonary comorbidities, since they not only influence the prognosis but also have an impact on disease management.
[Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases--'cardiopulmonary continuum'].
TLDR
An interdisciplinary team with good cooperation should prepare a plan of COPD treatment with simultaneous therapy of comorbidities, which is necessary to monitor the risk of CVD and their influence on the COPD course.
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