Systemic lupus erythematosus

  title={Systemic lupus erythematosus},
  author={David D'cruz and Munther A. Khamashta and Graham R. V. Hughes},
  journal={The Lancet},

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Advancements in the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis have resulted in development of novel therapies and immunomodulatory drugs developed for other diseases are being investigated for use in specific manifestations of lupus.

Pragmatic approaches to therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

Advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of SLE have led to the development of targeted immunotherapies, such as the anti-BAFF antibody belimumab, which has been approved as an add-on therapy for patients who have active disease despite receiving standard therapy.

Systemic lupus erythematosus: review of synthetic drugs

Currently available evidence for the efficacy and safety of synthetic drugs in SLE is reviewed, azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil are the drugs of first choice and determination of a ‘safe’ GC dose for chronic daily use is of major importance.

New directions in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus

Biologic compounds that target specific immunologic mechanisms offer a new paradigm in the treatment of SLE, one that may, at best, reverse the course of the disease and, at the very least, might provide some new alternatives to reduce symptoms and limit tissue damage without undue contribution to overall morbidity and mortality.

Therapeutic modalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.

The pathogenesis of the disease process, as well as the current and up and coming novel biological treatment and other therapies for specific disease manifestations, such as neuropsychiatric SLE and cutaneous lupus erythematosus are delved into.

Biologicals for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: current status and emerging therapies

The potential benefits of novel biological agents are explored, obstacles to the development of a treatment target in SLE are identified, and possible strategies to achieve this goal are discussed.

Newer Drugs for the Treatment of Lupus Nephritis

It is concluded that some strategies (like mycophenolate mofetil) are good candidates for further investigation in large-scale, prospective, randomised trials with prolonged follow-up, and some strategies are not met by any of the ‘new’ treatments discussed in this review.


New treatment options for SLE include Belimumab, Mycophenolate mofetil, intravenous immunoglobulins, Rituximab, Atacicept etc. main purpose of addition of new treatment modalities is prevention of complications of conventional treatment and to look for better therapeutic options.

Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

A patient with severe and refractory thrombosis secondary to SLE that did not respond to high dose corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide (CyC), vincristine, rituximab, and plasmapheresis eventually required haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to bring the disease under control.



Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus.

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  • Medicine, Biology
    Arthritis and rheumatism
  • 1997
In 1992, Piette and colleagues suggested that the ACR revised criteria be reevaluated in light of the above discoveries, and the presence and clinical associations or antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with SLE was suggested.

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Methotrexate in patients with moderate systemic lupus erythematosus (exclusion of renal and central nervous system disease)

Methotrexate was shown to be effective in reducing disease activity and sparing the dose of corticosteroids in SLE patients with particular clinical characteristics.

Successful treatment of lupus with fludarabine

A 58-year old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with severe joint involvement is described, which was complicated by herpes zoster infection and left pneumococcal pneumonia.

An open study of B lymphocyte depletion in systemic lupus erythematosus.

This study provides sufficient evidence for the safety and possible efficacy of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in SLE to justify a formal controlled trial.

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Controlled trial with chloroquine diphosphate in systemic lupus erythematosus

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Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus.

A 24-year-old woman has had episodic flares characterized by fatigue, fever, malar rash, arthralgias, abdominal pain, and lupus nephritis since the age of 11 years, and her hemoglobin level has ranged from 6.5 to 7.5 mg per deciliter.

Warfarin for multiple sclerosis?

There is enough data to consider antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), or Hughes' syndrome, as a major differential in the diagnosis of definite or probable MS according to Poser's criteria.

Long-term treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with cyclosporin A.

CSA represents a helpful second-choice treatment for patients with active SLE, and administration of CSA necessitates expert and careful followup of patients.