Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites

  title={Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites},
  author={Noa Simon-Delso and Vanessa Amaral-Rogers and Luc P. Belzunces and Jean-Marc Bonmatin and Madeleine Chagnon and Craig A. Downs and Lorenzo Furlan and David Gibbons and Chiara Giorio and Vincenzo Girolami and Dave Goulson and David P. Kreutzweiser and Christian Krupke and Matthias Liess and E. Long and Melanie McField and Pierre Mineau and Edward A. D. Mitchell and Christy A. Morrissey and Dominique A. Noome and Lennard Pisa and Josef Settele and John D. Stark and Andrea Tapparo and Hans Van Dyck and Jacob P. van Praagh and Jeroen P van der Sluijs and Penelope R. Whitehorn and Martin Wiemers},
  journal={Environmental Science and Pollution Research International},
  pages={5 - 34}
Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment… 
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