Systemic inflammation in heart failure – The whys and wherefores

  title={Systemic inflammation in heart failure – The whys and wherefores},
  author={Arne Yndestad and Jan Kristian Dam{\aa}s and Erik \Oie and Thor Ueland and Lars Gullestad and P{\aa}l Aukrust},
  journal={Heart Failure Reviews},
Patients with chronic heart failure (HF) are characterized by systemic inflammation, as evident by raised circulating levels of several inflammatory cytokines with increasing levels according to the degree of disease severity. In addition to the myocardium itself, several tissues and cells can contribute to this inflammation, including leukocytes, platelets, tissue macrophages and endothelial cells. Although the mechanisms for the systemic inflammation is unknown, both infectious (e.g… CONTINUE READING
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