Systemic effects of COPD.

  title={Systemic effects of COPD.},
  author={Marc Decramer and Fernando De Benedetto and Adriana Del Ponte and Stefano Marinari},
  journal={Respiratory medicine},
  volume={99 Suppl B},
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a range of pathological changes of the respiratory system, including airflow limitation secondary to structural changes of the small airways and loss of alveolar attachments, inflammation, ciliary dysfunction, and increased mucous production. COPD also has significant systemic consequences. The relationships between these pulmonary and nonpulmonary morbidities are not fully understood, and this further complicates the assessment… CONTINUE READING


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