Systemic allergic dermatitis following airborne exposure to 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one

  title={Systemic allergic dermatitis following airborne exposure to 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one},
  author={Diljit Kaur-Knudsen and Torkil Menn{\'e} and Berit Christina Carlsen},
  journal={Contact Dermatitis},
1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) is a preservative used to prevent the growth of microorganisms in a number of industrial and household products, such as glues, cleaning agents, polishes, paint, and hardeners (1). BIT has been recognized as an allergen since 1976 (2), and has the ability to cause contact dermatitis with a sensitization rate of 1.3% (3). Severe skin reactions after direct cutaneous exposure to BIT have been reported in many different occupations (4–7). However, systemic contact… 
Contact allergy to 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one
1,2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) (CAS no. 2634-33-5) is a biocide and fungicide that is widely used in paint and varnishes, but also in household cleaning products such as laundry detergents, and in
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by benzisothiazolinone in printing ink and soap
Allergic contact dermatitis in professional printers caused by exposure to BIT in printing ink itself has, to the authors' knowledge, not been previously described.
Occupational contact dermatitis caused by benzylisothiazolinone in two fragrance industry workers
BIT is an antimicrobial agent wildly used as a preservative in non-cosmetic products and responsible for occupational contact dermatitis in workers involved in the manufacturing of paints, plastic emulsions, air fresheners, textile and paper dyes, water softeners, pottery moulds, metallurgy and carpet industries.
Five cases of severe chronic dermatitis caused by isothiazolinones
Preservatives used in both industrial and consumer products are well-known and important causes of contact allergy (1). The allergens relevant for this article are the preservatives
Isothiazolinone derivatives and allergic contact dermatitis: a review and update
The epidemiology of contact allergy to different isothsiazolinones, clinical presentation of isothiazolinone‐induced ACD, most relevant sensitization sources and potential cross‐reactions between isoth Diazolinone derivatives are reviewed, and an update on recent legislative measures is provided.
Systemic contact dermatitis
  • N. Veien
  • Medicine
    International journal of dermatology
  • 2011
Hyposensitization therapy has been attempted with some success in systemic contact dermatitis caused by nickel and Parthenium hysterophorus, and diet treatment may be effective.
Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis: New Facets
Recent literature reports are focusing on occupational contact allergens such as biocides, resins, rubber additives, drugs, and, to a minor extent, botanically derived materials and metals.
Contact allergy caused by isothiazolinone derivatives: an overview of non-cosmetic and unusual cosmetic sources
The use of isothiazolinones in dishwashing and washing-machine liquids, cleaning agents for dental care, and their general presence in multi-purpose household detergents, which may elicit (airborne) allergic contact dermatitis, are discussed.
Airborne exposure to methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone from a toilet cleaner
A 32-year-old man was referred to us because of severe widespread dermatitis caused by heavy exposure to the isothiazolinones MCI/MI and MI while working at a glue factory, and developed a 5-cm eczematous reaction on the left inner thigh extending up to the buttock.
Methylisothiazolinone allergic contact dermatitis: Assessment of relapses in 139 patients after avoidance advice
Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative that is responsible for an epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Few studies have been published on the prognosis of patients with MI‐induced ACD.


Allergic contact dermatitis from the preservative 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one (1,2‐BIT; Proxel®): a case report, its prevalence in those occupationally at risk and in the general dermatological population, and its relationship to allergy to its analogue Kathon® CG
Occupational contact allergy to 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one (1‐2‐BIT, proxel®) is analysed and true cross‐sensitivity was found to be unlikely.
Allergic contact dermatitis to 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one in the carpet industry
The carpet industry is identified as an additional source of occupational allergic contact dermatitis to BIT in the present case report.
Occupational allergy from 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one and other preservatives in plastic emulsions.
Two male employees in an industry producing plastic emulsions acquired contact dermatitis from preservative, i.e. 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one and ethylene diamine.
Occupational hand dermatitis due to 1,2‐benzisothiazolin‐3‐one in the water‐softener manufacturing industry
A 63-year-old man developed vesicular hand dermatitis, extending up his forearms, several months after starting work in a factory assembling water-softeners, unaware that Proxel GXLA was a known sensitizer and that skin contact should be avoided.
Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in a chemical worker.
We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by inhalation of 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one, an additive used as a microbicidal in detergent production, in a 26-year-old man employed in a
Two cases of airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylisothiazolinone in paint
Two cases of airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylisothiazolinone in paint Michael D. Lundov1, Holger Mosbech2, Jacob P. Thyssen3, Torkil Menné3 and Claus Zachariae3 1Department of
Patch testing with preservatives, antimicrobials and industrial biocides. Results from a multicentre study
The overall impact of most of the preservatives on public health seems to be low, but for diagnostic reasons preservatives must be included in patch test series.
Systemic contact dermatitis.
An overview of the disease with descriptions of common allergens and some insight into the possible mechanism of action seen in SCD is provided.
The baboon syndrome: systemically‐induced allergic contact dermatitis *
The catchword “baboon syndrome” is used to denote a characteristic distribution pattern of systemic allergic contact dermatitis, which may be overlooked and suspected of being a textile dermatitis or seborrhoeie dermatitis of the elderly.
Preservatives in registered chemical products
The frequent registration of isothiazolinones (MCI/MI and benzisothiazolone) in paints/lacquers may be a possible explanation for the relative high and stable frequency of positive patch test reactions to MCI/ MI.