Systematics and evolution of ticks with a list of valid genus and species names

  title={Systematics and evolution of ticks with a list of valid genus and species names},
  author={Stephen C. Barker and Anna Murrell},
  pages={S15 - S36}
In recent years there has been much progress in our understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of ticks, in particular the hard ticks (Ixodidae). Indeed, a consensus about the phylogeny of the hard ticks has emerged which is quite different to the working hypothesis of 10 years ago. So that the classification reflects our knowledge of ticks, several changes to the nomenclature of ticks are imminent or have been made. One subfamily, the Hyalomminae, should be sunk, while another, the… 

An overview of systematics and evolution of ticks.

The origin of ticks is during the pre-mid Cretaceous period (with both the Argasidae and Ixodidae being established in the middleCretaceous).

Synopsis of the ticks of Algeria with new hosts and localities records

This study is the first to report the presence of I. inopinatus sensu Estrada-Peña et al. 2014 in Algeria and reports here for the first time all tick species known to be present in Algeria.

Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Dermacentor Ticks Using Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

In all analyses, it is found that North American Dermacentor ticks form a monophyletic lineage, and that all four species of one-host Dermocentor ticks also form aMonophyletics lineage within the genus.

Ticks of the Central African Republic

A review is presented of the ticks of the Central African Republic based on unpublished data and a literature review, which considers as established in the C.A.R. two species of Argasidae and 49 species of Ixodidae; some of the species of the genus Haemaphysalis are difficult to identify with certainty and there are only a few species of Hyalomma in the country.

Ticks in Australia: endemics; exotics; which ticks bite humans?

The latest maps of the geographic distributions of Ixodes holocyclus, Amblyomma t.

Distribution and phylogeny of Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Turkey

Morphological and molecular analyses demonstrated the presence of four species in Turkey and placed H. asiaticum, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum complex in different clades, but additional analyses with the samples from different locations using different markers need to evaluate the exact status of the species of these groups.

A transcriptome-based phylogenetic study of hard ticks (Ixodidae)

This work provides a baseline for studying the evolutionary history of ticks and finds an unexpected acceleration of substitutions for mitochondrial sequences of Prostriata, and for nuclear and mitochondrial genes of two species of Rhipicephalus, which it relates with patterns of genome architecture and changes of life-cycle, respectively.

Effects of tectonics and large scale climatic changes on the evolutionary history of Hyalomma ticks.




Phylogeny, Evolution and Historical Zoogeography of Ticks: A Review of Recent Progress

The genus Boophilus will probably become a subgenus of Rhipicephalus, and several changes to the nomenclature of ticks are imminent, so that the classification reflects the authors' knowledge of ticks.

Phylogeny of the hard ticks (Ixodidae) inferred from 18S rRNA indicates that the genus Aponomma is paraphyletic.

The phylogeny of ticks and their closest known mite relatives using 18S rRNA sequences indicated that the suborder Holothyrida is more closely related to Ixodida than to Mesostigmata, the group used as outgroup in earlier molecular studies.

Discriminating between Ixodes ticks by means of mitochondrial DNA sequences.

The DNA sequence of the mitochondrially encoded 16S rRNA gene of nine different Ixodes ticks and an outgroup from another genus, Dermacentor are reported to be useful for unravelling the systematics of these important vectors of human disease.

Phylogeny of hard- and soft-tick taxa (Acari: Ixodida) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences.

  • W. BlackJ. Piesman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
The derived phylogeny failed to support a monophyletic relationship among members of Ornithodorinae and supported placement of Argasinae as basal to the Ixodidae, suggesting that hard ticks may have originated from an Argas-like ancestor, and supports earlier suggestions thathard ticks did not evolve until the late Cretaceous.

Distinguishing species and populations of rhipicephaline ticks with its 2 ribosomal RNA.

  • S. Barker
  • Biology
    The Journal of parasitology
  • 1998
ITS 2 appears useful for phylogenetic inference in the Rhipicephalinae because in genetic distance, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses, most branches leading to species had >95% bootstrap support.

The value of idiosyncratic markers and changes to conserved tRNA sequences from the mitochondrial genome of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) for phylogenetic inference.

Two of the most interesting markers gave strong support to the hypothesis that species of the Prostriata (Ixodes spp.) are monophyletic, and changes to typically conserved nucleotides in tRNAs that are phylogenetically informative were common in this data set, and thus these types of markers might be found in other organisms.

A re-evaluation of relationships in the Metastriata (Acari: Parasitiformes: Ixodidae)

The analysis provides weak support for a hypothesis in which the basal two to three lineages in the Metastriata are all composed of Aponomma species, and in which a fourth lineage within that genus, Ap onomma elaphense, clusters with Amblyomma quadricavum to form a more derived lineage.

Phylogenetic relationships among tick subfamilies (Ixodida: Ixodidae: Argasidae) based on the 18S nuclear rDNA gene.

The 18S phylogeny supports the earlier 16S based phylogeny in placing members of Hyalomminae on a common branch with members of the Rhipicephalinae and in indicating long branch lengths among soft tick taxa.

18S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic relationships of European hard-tick species (Acari: Ixodidae)

Phylogenetic analyses strongly support that Hyalomma species share a common ancestor with Rhipicephalinae and, consequently, Hyalomminae should no longer be considered an independent subfamily, and no definitive conclusion could be reached to support or oppose the separation of the subfamilies Haemaphysalinee and Amblyommineae.


Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian methodology indicated that the I. ricinus complex is not a monophyletic group unless 3 additional Ixodes species are included in it, which suggests that acquisition of the ability to transmit borreliosis agents in species of Ixode may have multiple origins.