Systematics, phylogeny, and evolution of orb-weaving spiders.

@article{Hormiga2014SystematicsPA,
  title={Systematics, phylogeny, and evolution of orb-weaving spiders.},
  author={Gustavo Hormiga and Charles E. Griswold},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
  year={2014},
  volume={59},
  pages={
          487-512
        }
}
The orb-weaving spiders (Orbiculariae) comprise more than 25% of the approximately 44,000 known living spider species and produce a remarkable variety of webs. The wheel-shaped orb web is primitive to this clade, but most Orbiculariae make webs hardly recognizable as orbs. Orb-weavers date at least to the Jurassic. With no evidence for convergence of the orb web, the monophyly of the two typical orb web taxa, the cribellate Deinopoidea and ecribellate Araneoidea, remains problematic, supported… CONTINUE READING
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