Effects of Remifentanil Pretreatment on Bupivacaine Cardiotoxicity in Rats
BACKGROUND Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) were initially developed to provide parenteral nutrition. In recent years, ILE has emerged as a treatment for poisoning by local anesthetics and various other drugs. The dosing regimen for the clinical toxicology indications differs significantly from those used for parenteral nutrition. The evidence on the efficacy of ILE to reverse acute toxicity of diverse substances consists mainly of case reports and animal experiments. Adverse events to ILE are important to consider when clinicians need to make a risk/benefit analysis for this therapy. METHODS Multiple publication databases were searched to identify reports of adverse effects associated with acute ILE administration for either treatment of acute poisoning or parenteral nutrition. Articles were selected based on pre-defined criteria to reflect acute use of ILE. Experimental studies and reports of adverse effects as a complication of long-term therapy exceeding 14 days were excluded. RESULTS The search identified 789 full-text articles, of which 114 met the study criteria. 27 were animal studies, and 87 were human studies. The adverse effects associated with acute ILE administration included acute kidney injury, cardiac arrest, ventilation perfusion mismatch, acute lung injury, venous thromboembolism, hypersensitivity, fat embolism, fat overload syndrome, pancreatitis, extracorporeal circulation machine circuit obstruction, allergic reaction, and increased susceptibility to infection. CONCLUSION The emerging use of ILE administration in clinical toxicology warrants careful attention to its potential adverse effects. The dosing regimen and context of administration leading to the adverse events documented in this review are not generalizable to all clinical toxicology scenarios. Adverse effects seem to be proportional to the rate of infusion as well as total dose received. Further safety studies in humans and reporting of adverse events associated with ILE administration at the doses advocated in current clinical toxicology literature are needed.