Systematic review and meta-analysis: Physical-procedural interventions used to reduce pain during intramuscular injections in adults.

@article{anlialpZeyrek2019SystematicRA,
  title={Systematic review and meta-analysis: Physical-procedural interventions used to reduce pain during intramuscular injections in adults.},
  author={Arife Şanlialp Zeyrek and Şenay Takmak and Nevin Kuzu Kurban and S{\"u}meyye Arslan},
  journal={Journal of advanced nursing},
  year={2019}
}
AIMS To assess the effectiveness of physical-procedural interventions in reducing pain during intramuscular injections. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD English keywords were used to search databases [MEDLINE (OVID, Ebsco), SCOPUS, Science Direct, COCHRANE and the reference lists from retrieved articles] from their inception to November 2017 and randomized and quasi-experimental trials were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized mean… 
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References

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The effect on pain of three different methods of intramuscular injection: A randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
Results supported the hypothesis that the internally rotated foot and Z-track techniques significantly reduce pain intensity during intramuscular injection and investigated differences in pain perception related to gender and body mass index.
Effect on pain of changing the needle prior to administering medicine intramuscularly: a randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
The hypothesis that changing the needle before administering an intramuscular injection could reduce pain could be supported, and gender differences in pain perception were investigated.
The Use of ShotBlocker for Reducing the Pain and Anxiety Associated With Intramuscular Injection: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study
TLDR
The results suggest that using ShotBlocker during intramuscular injection reduced patients' pain intensity because of injection but did not reduce anxiety levels, and Shot blocker is recommended as a pain-relieving tool during intranascular injection in adults.
The Effect of the Z-Track Technique on Pain and Drug Leakage in Intramuscular Injections
TLDR
Drug leakage was reduced when administering intramuscular diclofenac sodium by the Z technique, but pain severity was not significantly reduced and the study conducted in a government hospital in the Marmara region of Turkey.
The effect of the application of manual pressure before the administration of intramuscular injections on students' perceptions of postinjection pain: a semi‐experimental study
TLDR
This study's results show that the application of manual pressure to the injection site before intramuscular injections reduces postinjection pain intensity in young adult students (p < 0·05).
The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection
TLDR
Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivery to the DS.
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