Systematic review and meta‐analysis of the efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes

@article{Suksomboon2014SystematicRA,
  title={Systematic review and meta‐analysis of the efficacy and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes},
  author={Naeti Suksomboon and Nalinee Poolsup and A Yuwanakorn},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics},
  year={2014},
  volume={39}
}
Chromium is an essential mineral for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Results of previous systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of chromium supplementation and metabolic profiles in diabetes have been inconsistent. Recently, several published trials have emerged. We conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis to assess the effects on metabolic profiles and safety of chromium supplementation in diabetes mellitus. 
[Chromium supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].
TLDR
The available evidence suggests favourable effects of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes, and this meta-analysis assesses the effects on metabolic profiles and safety ofchromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cholesterol.
Chromium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Systematic review and meta‐analysis
TLDR
A meta‐analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimation of the efficacy of chromium, and suggested that chromium supplementation may improve the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome.
The Impact of Chromium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta‑Analysis of Randomized‑Controlled Trials
TLDR
It is indicated that supplementation with chromium significantly decrease SBP and DBP and in subgroup analysis, administration of chromium yeast and brewer’s yeast resulted in greater reduction in SBP.
Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
TLDR
The use of chromium supplements can reduce the glycosylated hemoglobin of type 1 diabetic patients to a certain extent, but it cannot effectively improve the fasting blood glucose and blood lipid levels of type 2 diabetic patients.
Efficacy and Safety of Nutrient Supplements for Glycaemic Control and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: An Umbrella Review and Hierarchical Evidence Synthesis
TLDR
There was very low certainty evidence that Vitamin D was superior to placebo for lowering HbA1c in trials of <6 months, but future research should identify who may benefit from nutrient supplementation, safety, and optimal regimens and formulations.
Could nutrient supplements provide additional glycemic control in diabetes management? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of as an add-on nutritional supplementation therapy
This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the antidiabetic effect of pharmaconutrients as an add-on in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients by pooling data from currently available randomized
The effect of chromium intake on oxidative stress parameters: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Chromium and glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients: Review of current evidence
TLDR
Clinical trial, cross -sectional, retrospective and prospective studies which were published during 1995 to 2014 were reviewed and showed that the consumption of high dose of chromium supplement during more than 12 weeks not only improves insulin sensitivity, but also alters body fat distribution and reduce weight gain trends in patients with diabetes.
A Comprehensive insight into the effect of chromium supplementation on oxidative stress indices in diabetes mellitus: A systematic review
TLDR
In conclusion, chromium supplementation decreased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus, however, further clinical trials are suggested in a bid to determine the exact mechanisms.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 66 REFERENCES
Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose Metabolism and Lipids: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
TLDR
Chromium supplementation significantly improved glycemia among patients with diabetes and in people without diabetes, however, future studies that address the limitations in the current evidence are needed before definitive claims can be made about the effect of chromium supplementation.
Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials showed no association between chromium and glucose or insulin concentrations among nondiabetic subjects and data for persons with diabetes are inconclusive.
Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes
TLDR
This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin on glycaemic control.
Current Concepts About Chromium Supplementation in Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance
TLDR
It was concluded that a clinical response to chromium may be more likely in insulin-resistant individuals with type 2 diabetes who have more elevated fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels.
Clinical trial of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men
TLDR
Both the inorganic and organic oral Cr supplements increased measurable body pools of Cr in hair and red blood cells by about 25%, however, fasting plasma glucose and lipids and the glucose response to either the standard meal or to tolbutamide were not significantly altered by any of the treatments.
Effects of Chromium and Yeast Supplements on Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Diabetic Men
TLDR
A clinical double-blind, random crossover trial of inorganic Cr trichloride, a brewer's yeast that contained Cr as glucose tolerance factor (GTF), a brewers' yeast extract without GTF, and a placebo on the basis of response of carbohydrate metabolism to treatment found no effect on carbohydrate levels.
Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Serum Triglyceride Levels in NIDDM
TLDR
This is the first report of a significant reduction in serum TGs in a group of NIDDM patients treated with chromium, making it an attractive lipid-lowering agent for this population.
Role of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Beneficial effects of chromium in people with type 2 diabetes, and urinary chromium response to glucose load as a possible indicator of status
TLDR
It was concluded that urinary Cr response to glucose load could be used as an indicator of chromium (Cr) status.
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