Systematic review: Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low‐ and middle‐income settings: systematic review and meta‐regression

  title={Systematic review: Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low‐ and middle‐income settings: systematic review and meta‐regression},
  author={Jennyfer Wolf and Annette Pr{\"u}ss-Ust{\"u}n and Oliver Cumming and Jamie K. Bartram and Sophie Bonjour and Sandy Cairncross and Thomas F. Clasen and John M. Colford and Valerie Curtis and Jennifer France and Lorna Fewtrell and Matthew C. Freeman and Bruce Gordon and Paul R. Hunter and Aurelie Jeandron and Richard B. Johnston and Daniel M{\"a}usezahl and Colin D. Mathers and Maria P. Neira and Julian P. T. Higgins},
  journal={Tropical Medicine \& International Health},
To assess the impact of inadequate water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low‐ and middle‐income settings. 

Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries

The burden of diarrhoeal diseases from exposure to inadequate water, sanitation and hand hygiene in low‐ and middle‐income settings and an overview of the impact on other diseases are estimated.

Impact of drinking water, sanitation and handwashing with soap on childhood diarrhoeal disease: updated meta‐analysis and meta‐regression

The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease.

Household sanitation is associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not viral infections and diarrhoea, in a cohort study in a low‐income urban neighbourhood in Vellore, India

This study examined associations between household sanitation and enteric infection – including diarrhoeal‐specific outcomes – in children 0–2 years of age in a low‐income, dense urban neighbourhood.

Systematic review: Hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects

To estimate the global prevalence of handwashing with soap and derive a pooled estimate of the effect of hygiene on diarrhoeal diseases, based on a systematic search of the literature.

The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microbiological effectiveness of household water treatment technologies under field use conditions in rural Tanzania

To assess the microbiological effectiveness of several household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) options in situ in Tanzania, before consideration for national scale‐up of HWTS.

Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions for acute childhood diarrhea: a systematic review to provide estimates for the Lives Saved Tool

Various WASH interventions show diarrhea risk reductions between 27% and 53% in children 0–5 years old, depending on intervention type, providing ample evidence to support the scale-up of WASH in low and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Progress in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) coverage and potential contribution to the decline in diarrhea and stunting in Ethiopia.

Improvements in water and sanitation only modestly explained reductions in diarrhoea and stunting in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2016.



Water sanitation and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhoea in developing countries.

This report is a synthetic review of impact evaluations examining effectiveness of water sanitation and hygiene interventions in reducing childhood diarrhoea and provides an update of previous reviews conducted in this area.

Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review

To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources, seawater samples are analyzed for E. coli andTC levels are counted.

Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

A cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bolivia of solar drinking water disinfection is conducted, and finds only moderate compliance with the intervention and no evidence of reduction in diarrhea among children.

Effect of Sanitation on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

A systematic review and meta-analysis finds that sanitation is associated with a reduced risk of transmission of helminthiases to humans.

Assessing the impact of a school‐based water treatment, hygiene and sanitation programme on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster‐randomized trial

A cluster‐randomized trial of school‐based WASH on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya, from 2007 to 2008 to study the impact of access to water, sanitation and hygiene at schools in developing countries.

Effect of Household-Based Drinking Water Chlorination on Diarrhoea among Children under Five in Orissa, India: A Double-Blind Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial

A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Orissa, a state in southeast India, to evaluate the effect of household water treatment in preventing diarrheal illnesses in children aged under five years of age.

Epidemiologic evidence for health benefits from improved water and sanitation in developing countries.

L'amelioration de l'eau et de l'hygiene a des impacts benefiques sur la sante, notamment des enfants. Ces impacts dependent du type d'intervention, du degre d'exposition aux germes pathogenes dans la

Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

The evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all, and the striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water.

Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

Educational interventions directed both at identified individuals and the community in general in small communities with poor water quality is a way of giving communities the skills and knowledge to manage their own drinking water quality.