Systematic reinterpretation of Piksi barbarulna Varricchio, 2002 from the Two Medicine Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Western USA (Montana) as a pterosaur rather than a bird

  title={Systematic reinterpretation of Piksi barbarulna Varricchio, 2002 from the Two Medicine Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Western USA (Montana) as a pterosaur rather than a bird},
  author={Federico L. Agnolin and David J. Varricchio},
ABSTRACT Varricchio (2002) described some forelimb bones from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine Formation, Glacier County, Montana (USA), as the holotype of Piksi barbarulna, a supposed ornithothoracine bird. However reevaluation of Piksi Varricchio, 2002 instead recognizes this genus as belonging to Pterosauria Kaup, 1834 and not Aves Linnaeus, 1758. Piksi exhibits the following derived humeral traits of pterosaurs: 1) very large ectepicondyle; 2) large trochlea; 3) with a deep… 
A small azhdarchoid pterosaur from the latest Cretaceous, the age of flying giants
The first pterosaur from the Campanian Northumberland Formation (Nanaimo Group) of Hornby Island, British Columbia, is represented here by a humerus, dorsal vertebrae, and other fragments, an identification consistent with dominance of this group in the latest Cretaceous.
Pterosaur material from the uppermost Jurassic of the uppermost Morrison Formation, Breakfast Bench Facies, Como Bluff, Wyoming, including a pterosaur with pneumatized femora
Abstract Pterosaur fossils are rare in the Morrison Formation, and most are poorly preserved. The Breakfast Bench Facies (BBF) at Como Bluff produces incomplete but uncrushed limbs. One proximal and
Phylogenetic Systematics of Quetzalcoatlus Lawson 1975 (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea)
  • B. Andres
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology
  • 2021
ABSTRACT The Azhdarchidae have come to be known as the most diverse clade of Late Cretaceous pterosaurs and the largest flying creatures in existence. Since the erection of the taxon nearly four
Mammal‐bearing gastric pellets potentially attributable to Troodon formosus at the Cretaceous Egg Mountain locality, Two Medicine Formation, Montana, USA
Fossil gastric pellets (regurgitalites) have distinct taphonomic characteristics that facilitate inferences of behavioural ecology in deep time, despite their rarity in the fossil record. Using the
Osteology of an exceptionally well-preserved tapejarid skeleton from Brazil: Revealing the anatomy of a curious pterodactyloid clade
The new specimen comprises an almost complete skeleton, preserving both the skull and post-cranium, associated with remarkable preservation of soft tissues, which makes it the most complete tapejarid known thus far.
Late Maastrichtian pterosaurs from North Africa and mass extinction of Pterosauria at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary
Late Maastrichtian pterosaurs show increased niche occupation relative to earlier, Santonian-Campanian faunas and successfully outcompeted birds at large sizes and suggest an abrupt mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary.


An azhdarchid pterosaur humerus from the Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation of Texas
Pterosaurs are rare components of Texas Cretaceous faunas. The best known is Quetzalcoatlus northropi, from the Javelina Formation (Maastrichtian) of Big Bend National Park, with a wingspan of some
Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) birds and pterosaurs from the Cornet bauxite mine, Romania
Re-examination of collections in Oradea confirms the presence of both birds and pterosaurs in the Cornet bauxite: although the fragmentary bird remains are mostly indeterminate, one record of a hesperornithiform is confirmed.
A new azhdarchid pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco
Abstract A large azhdarchid pterosaur is described from the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic deposits of the Oulad Abdoun Basin, near Khouribga (central Morocco). The material consists of five closely
A new bird from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana
A partial humerus, ulna, and radius compose the type specimen of a new bird, Piksi barbarulna, new genus and species from the Late Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of western Montana, which appears to have a fairly basal position within Ornithothoraces.
The Morphology and Phylogenetic Position of Apsaravis ukhaana from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia
The implications of Apsaravis ukhaana, and the results of the phylogenetic analysis, for the evolution of flight after its origin and character support for enantiornithine monophyly are extensively discussed.
New information on the Tapejaridae (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) and discussion of the relationships of this clade
Abstract. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Tapejaridae is a monophyletic group of pterodactyloid pterosaurs, diagnosed by the following synapomorphies: premaxillary sagittal crest that
On two pterosaur humeri from the Tendaguru beds (Upper Jurassic, Tanzania).
The combination of the morphological features of the deltopectoral crest not observed in other pterosaurs suggests that this specimen belongs to a new dsungaripteroid taxon, which could be referred to the Archaeopterodactyloidea.
A long-necked pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea, Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Valencia, Spain
Fragmentary remains, including cervical vertebrae and limb bones, of a large pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Tous, province of Valencia (Spain), are described. The material was recovered from
On the pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation (Barremian), Patagonian Andes of Argentina.
The oldest record of the Anhangueridae, previously limited to the Aptian/Albian, is extended to the Barremian, and the Argentinean material is preserved in three dimensions, indicating that the site situated near the Estancia Río Roble has a great potential for new and well preserved specimens.
A New Carinate Bird from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina)
A new bird from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina), known from associated wing elements, is described and its phylogenetic position evaluated and it is named a new taxon Limenavis patagonica.