Systematic reasoning: Formal or postformal cognition?

  title={Systematic reasoning: Formal or postformal cognition?},
  author={Eeva Kallio},
  journal={Journal of Adult Development},
  • Eeva Kallio
  • Published 1 July 1995
  • Education
  • Journal of Adult Development
The focus of this study was to investigate the relationship between formal and postformal systematic metasystematic reasoning. Shayer's (1978) chemicals task and a modified version of Kuhn and Brannock's (1977) plant task were used to measure formal thinking and Commons, Richard, and Kuhn's (1982) multisystem task and balance-beam task to detect postformal reasoning. Subjects were university students from the humanities and social sciences (N=35). For each subject, a composite score was defined… 

Introduction to the model of hierarchical complexity.

This special issue presents a collection of papers based on the Model of Hierarchical Complexity, a non-mentalistic model of developmental stages that posits that task sequences form hierarchies that become increasingly complex.

Frameworks for Thinking: Frameworks dealing with productive thinking

Introduction The second family group consists of frameworks for understanding critical and creative thinking, which we subsume under the more general term productive thinking . By productive thinking

How Wisdom Emerges from Intellectual Development: A Developmental/Historical Theory for Raising Mandelas

This is the first attempt to derive wisdom from the development of cognitive and personality processes from infancy through early adulthood and to connect it to serious world problems.

Relationship among measures within the social and moral development domain

This paper investigates using the Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC) as a framework to study individual’s stages of moral understanding. As an improvement from traditional stages of moral

Introduction to the Model of Hierarchical Complexity and Its Relationship to Postformal Action

The Model of Hierarchical Complexity is introduced in terms of its main concepts, background, and applications, which enables examination of universal patterns of evolution and development.

From causal thinking to wisdom and spirituality: some perspectives on a growing research field in adult (cognitive) development

This article concentrates on the latest international trends in the research on psychological development of adults, and especially on the development of cognition. The field of research has been

Introduction: Developmental Processes in Adulthood—European Research Perspectives

The main objective of this Special European Issue is to investigate some topical aspects of recent research on adult development in Europe. More specifically, the issue offers a detailed discussion

Frameworks for Thinking: Frameworks dealing with instructional design

Introduction Every instructional design system is underpinned in some way or other by a theory of learning and a way of ‘knowing’ or ‘seeing’ the world. While learning theory describes and attempts

An Overview of the Concepts of Change and Development: From the Premodern to Modern Era

This chapter focuses on the concepts of change and progress from the perspective of the history of science and modern developmental psychology. The section on the history of science focuses on the

Four Postformal Stages

The term “postformal” has come to refer to various stage characterizations of behavior that are more complex than those behaviors found in Piaget’s last stage—formal operations—and generally seen



Systematic and metasystematic reasoning: A case for levels of reasoning beyond Piaget's stage of formal operations.

COMMONS, MICHAEL L.; RICHARDS, FRANCIS A.; and KUHN, DEANNA. Systematic and Metasystematic Reasoning: A Case for Levels of Reasoning beyond Piaget's Stage of Formal Operations. CHILD DEVELOPMENT,

Formal operations and postformal reasoning: A replication

The relationship between formal operations and postformal reasoning was examined by using the Shayer (1978) chemicals problem to assess formal operations and the Commons, et al. (1982) four-story

Structure and Sequence of Formal and Postformal Thought: General Patterns and Individual Differences.

DEMETRIOU, ANDREAS, and EFKLIDES, ANASTASIA. Structure and Sequence of Formal and Postformal Thought: General Patterns and Individual Differences. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1985, 56, 10621091. According to

The Growth Of Logical Thinking From Childhood To Adolescence: An Essay On The Construction Of Formal Operational Structures

If you are searching for a book by Piaget Jean & Inhelder Brbel The Growth Of Logical Thinking From Childhood To Adolescence: AN ESSAY ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF FORMAL OPERATIONAL STRUCTURES

Post-Formal Operations? A Need for Further Conceptualization

Several conceptualizations of cognitive development in adulthood have recently been advanced within a Piagetian framework. While each is unique, there are three shared features: (1) the realization of

Adult life: Developmental processes

This comprehensive introduction to adult development and aging offers balanced treatment of the early, middle, and late adult development stages.